Tips for every day

Disclaimer: All content on this website is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation. Use of this website and the information contained herein does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Always consult with your own doctor in connection with any questions or issues you may have regarding your own health or the health of others.

Buying and selling a house

Home inspector.resize

Putting a home up for sale is daunting enough without even considering all the things you need to do before taking those first few steps of finding an agent and actually listing your home.

As Adrian Goslett, regional director and CEO of RE/MAX of Southern Africa points out, there is a number of compliance certificates that need to be in order before you even contact an agent or list a property on one of the portals.

Having these six compliance certificates in place at the start of your journey won’t guarantee smooth sailing as you enter the market, but it will take a lot of the hassle out of the process down the line.

Electrical Certificate of Compliance

An Electrical Certificate of Compliance (ECOC) verifies that the electrical work and installation on the property are up to standard and in accordance with regulations as required by the national standards. An ECOC is valid for two years.

The inspection done to receive your ECOC will cover the distribution boards, all wiring as well as earthing and bonding of all metal components, which include antennaes and satellite dishes. It will also cover the socket outlets, light switches and all isolators for fixed appliances. However, an electrical certificate will not cover any fixed appliances such as the geyser, stove, motors, fans or underfloor heating.

Once you have found an electrical contractor it is within your right to ask for proof membership of ECA – SA (Electrical Contractors Association of South Africa). An employer’s organisation, seen as the voice of the industry, who provides a workmanship guarantee scheme, this should aid in increasing your peace of mind, knowing that the ECOC you have in place has been issued based on sound practice.

Gas Certificate of Compliance

Gas stove in kitchen

Need a kitchen reno? Click the pic for tips to keep your renovation within budget.

On 1 October 2009, Regulation 17 (3) of the Pressure Equipment Regulations (OHS ACT of 1993) came into effect, which states that if a liquid gas appliance has been installed on the property, a Gas Certificate of Conformity is to be issued when there is a change of ownership. This certificate is valid for five years and must be issued by an authorised person who is registered with the Liquified Petroleum Gas Safety Association of Southern Africa (LPGAS).

The gas certificate ensures that gas components are in a safe, working condition and are leak free. It also certifies that the emergency shut-off valves have been installed in the correct positions. For the gas components to pass inspection, they must be correctly positioned in relation to electrical points, and outside cylinders must be the required distance from doors, drains, windows and electrical appliances.

Electric Fence Certificate of Compliance

The Electrical Fence Certificate of Compliance (EFCC) is a separate certificate that is required in addition to the ECOC. This certificate is required for any property with an electric fence, and states that the installation of the fence complies with safety standards. Although the certificate is transferrable between owners a new inspection and certification is required should the fence have undergone any addition or alteration.

Remember: Should you want to sell your sectional title unit you should not be required to show an individual certificate; the body corporate is seen as the ‘owner’ of the electric fence and should be in possession of a valid EFCC. Enquire about this, even if you are not thinking of selling.

Only qualified contractors registered with the SA Electrical Fence Installers Association (SAEFIA) are legally permitted to erect, repair and certify electric fences.

Water Installation Certificate

Leaking tap

Bungled municipal readings? Here’s what you need to do (Click the pic)

The requirement for a Water Installation Certificate before a transfer will take place is an area-specific by-law that applies to properties sold within Cape Town or areas where the City of Cape Town holds jurisdiction.

The by-law was introduced by the City of Cape Town in February 2011, the intent of this law is to limit water wastage as much as possible. Every time a new owner is registered for a property a new Water Installation Certificate must be issued. A positive “side-effect” of the by-law is the fact that buyers are protected from latent defect claims and high water bill due to leakages.

Water shortage in the Cape: Here’s another thing Capetonians can do the alleviate the crisis

It is important to remember that a Plumbing Certificate and a Water Installation Certificate differ; the Water Installation Certificate does not cover all aspects of plumbing.

As a homeowner or seller you need to enlist the services of a qualified plumber who is accredited in terms of the South African Qualifications Authority. The inspection will involve the plumber certifying that the hot water cylinder complies with SANS 10252 and 10254, that the water meter registers, that there are no water leaks, that water pipes and terminal fittings are correctly fixed in position, that no stormwater is discharged into the sewerage system, and that there is no cross connection between the potable supply and any grey water or groundwater system which may be installed.

Once you have the compliance certificate in hand it should be submitted to

Beetle Infestation Clearance Certificate

Although it is not a mandatory requirement, it has become standard practice that a seller provides the buyer with a Beetle Clearance Certificate. In fact, in many coastal areas this certificate has become a written condition in the sales agreement.

Banks and insurance companies will request a certificate on transfer if the home is situated in an area known to be infested. However, Beetle Clearance Certificates are usually not required for sectional title properties, or where the property is situated inland where beetle/woodborer problems are less common than in coastal areas.

The Beetle Clearance Certificate is only issued once the property has been inspected for any visible signs of wood destroying insects and deemed to be free of any such insects. To ensure you are making use of a suitably qualified inspector consult the South African Pest Control Association (SAPCA) website, where a register of all pest control service providers is kept.

The certificate is valid for between three and six months.

Declaration regarding Invasive Species

In terms of Section 29(3) of the Alien and Invasive Species regulations of 2014 the seller has to notify the purchaser in writing, prior to conclusion of the sale of agreement, of the presence of any of the listed invasive species on the property. The list can be viewed on the Invasive Species of South Africa’s (ISSA) website

Family Safety




‘n Kind is enigiemand jonger as 18 jaar.

Die hoogste wetlike gesag in Suid-Afrika, naamlik die Grondwet, waarborg dat almal jonger as 18 jaar kinderregte het. Alle kinders in Suid-Afrika, met inbegrip van kinders van ander lande, het dus sekere regte.


  • Kinders het die reg om kinders te wees.
  • Kinders het die reg om deur hulle ouers, familie en oppassers versorg te word.
  • Kinders het die reg om genoeg kos te hê om gesond te bly.
  • Kinders het die reg tot die beste moontlike gesondheidsorg wanneer hulle siek is.
  • Kinders het die reg om beskerm te word teen kwaad, om skuiling te hê en om veilig te voel.
  • Kinders het die reg tot opvoeding.
  • Kinders met gestremdhede het die reg op spesiale sorg.
  • Kinders het die reg om hulle gevoelens te lug en om na geluister te word.


  • Die Regering, insluitend die SAPD, moet alles binne sy vermoë doen om kinders beskerm teen mense, insluitend hulle ouers, wat hulle seermaak.
  • Die Regering moet help om kinders te beskerm teen soorte fisieke en emosionele geweld, besering of misbruik.
  • Kinders wat in die moeilikheid is met gereg het die reg om met spesiale aandag behandel te word.
  • Kinders het die reg om beskerm te word teen situasies waarin gewapende geweld voorkom.
  • Kinders het die reg om verwaarlosing, misbruik en vernederende straf deur ouers en oppassers beskerm te word.
  • Kinders het die reg om te speel en om nie se werk te doen nie; om beskerm te word teen kinderarbeid, en om nie geforseer te word om vir ander geld te maak nie.
  • Kinders het die reg om teen alle vorme van seksuele uitbuiting en seksuele beskerm te word.
  • Kinders het die reg om skadelike stowwe en dwelms beskerm te word. Kinders moet daarteen beskerm word om gebruik te word om dwelms maak of verkoop.


Seksuele misbruik

  • Om ‘n kind te dwing om aan jou te raak.
  • Om ‘n kind bloot te stel aan pornografiese materiaal.
  • Om aan ‘n kind te raak waar hy of sy nie aangeraak wil word nie en wanneer dit nie gepas is nie Fisieke misbruik
  • Om ‘n kind te slaan of seer te maak, of om jou frustrasies op hom of haar uit te haal.Emosionele misbruik
  • Om ‘n kind te verneder, te dreig of om op hom of haar te skree. Verwaarlosing
  • Om nie goed vir ‘n kind te sorg nie, byvoorbeeld deur die kind nie te bad, aan te trek of kos tee gee nie.


  • Oortreders is dikwels aan die kind bekend. Hulle kan mense wees hulle vertrouensposisies misbruik deur kinders te misbruik hulle eintlik veronderstel is om die kinders te beskerm.
  • Hulle kan selfs ouers, ander familielede, vriende, bure, onderwysers of polisiebeamptes wees. Dit beteken egter nie dat almal in vertrouensposisies kinders misbruik nie.
  • Kinders is kwesbaar, veral oor naweke en vakansies wanneer hulle alleen tuis is.
  • Ouers of oppassers moet altyd weet waar en saam met wie hulle kinders is.
  • Ouers of oppassers moet altyd in die beste belang van die kind optree.
  • Kinderbeskerming begin tuis en met jou eie familie.


Vertel iemand:

  • As jy bedreig voel, vertel iemand wat jy vertrou.
  • Moet nooit toelaat dat misbruik ‘n geheim tussen jou en die misbruiker word nie.
  • As iemand jou reeds misbruik het, moet hom of haar nie beskerm nie – beskerm jouself – meld dit aan.
  • As die persoon jou nie glo nie, vertel iemand anders. Gaan na ‘ kliniek en vertel die klinieksuster – sy moet stappe neem. Jy kan misbruik aanmeld by ‘ polisiestasie, of ‘n onderwyser wat jy vertrou vra om jou te help om dit aan te meld. Jy kan ook Childline tolvrye nommer skakel by 0800 05 55 55.

Hou aan om vir mense te vertel wat gebeur het totdat iemand jou glo en stappe neem om jou te beskerm.


  • Wees ingelig oor jou regte as ‘n kind.
  • Jy het die reg om NEE te sê vir enigiemand, selfs jou ouers, wat dinge doen of sê wat jy voel verkeerd is. Dit sluit enigiemand in wat probeer om aan jou liggaam te raak of voorstelle maak waarmee jy nie gemaklik voel nie.
  • Lees oor dinge wat jy nie verstaan nie, soos seks, VIGS, hoe babas gebore word,
    en wat seksuele, emosionele en fisieke misbruik is. Jy hoef nie bang of skaam te wees om vrae te vra oor hierdie dinge nie. Jy kan jou ouers onderwysers of enige volwassene wat vertrou daaroor uitvra, of jy kan Childline bel.

‘n Ingeligte kind is ‘n goedbeskermde kind.

Wees lief vir jouself

  • Bewaar jou liggaam; dit is vir ‘n leeftyd.
  • Respekteer jouself en ander.
  • Heg waarde aan jou eie lewe – jy is spesiaal.Wees vol selfvertroue
  • Seun of meisie, ryk of arm, vet of maer, lank of kort – tree met selfvertroue op. Moenie toegee aan druk van jou vriende of enigiemand anders nie. Hou by jou beginsels. Ken jou perke en respekteer ook ander mense se perke.
  • Weet hoe ver jy mag gaan met iemand anders en weet die perke is wat ander mense se gedrag teenoor jou betref.
  • Seuns en meisies: beskerm en staan op vir mekaar vir dit wat reg is.
  • As jy misbruik word, kan dit nooit jou skuld wees nie misbruikers sal probeer om jou te blameer in ‘n poging om te keer dat jy met ander mense oor die misbruik praat.

Onthou, die voorkoming van misdade teen kinders is almal se saak.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number
0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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A child is anyone under the age of 18 years.

The supreme law of South Africa, which is the Constitution, guarantees that all people younger than 18 years have children’s rights. Therefore, all children in South Africa, including children from other countries, have rights.


  • Children have the right to be children.
  • Children have the right to be cared for by their parents, family and caregivers.
  • Children have the right to enough food to stay healthy.
  • Children have the right to the best possible health care when they are sick.
  • Children have the right to be protected from harm, to have shelter and to feel safe.
  • Children have the right to an education.
  • Children with disabilities have the right to special care.
  • Children have the right to speak out and be heard.


  • The Government, including the SAPS, must do everything it can to protect children from people, including their parents, who hurt them.
  • The Government must help protect children from all kinds of physical and mental violence, injury or abuse.
  • Children who are in trouble with the law have the right to be treated with special attention.
  • Children have the right to be protected from situations of armed conflict.
  • Children have the right to protected against neglect, abuse and punishment by parents and caregivers.
  • Children have the right to play and not to do grown-up work; to be protected against child labour – and being forced to work to make money for others.
  • Children have the right to be protected against all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.
  • Children have the right to be protected against harmful substances and drugs. Children must be protected from being used to make or sell drugs.


Sexual abuse

  • Forcing a child to touch you.
  • Exposing a child to pornographic material.
  • Touching a child where he or she doesn’t want to be touched and when it is appropriate.

Physical abuse

  • Hitting or hurting a child – or to relieve your own frustration on him or her.

Emotional abuse

  • To degrade, threaten or to yell at a child.


  • Not taking proper care of a child, for example not cleaning, clothing feeding a child.



  • Perpetrators are often known to the child. They could be people abuse their positions of trust by abusing children when they actually supposed to be the children. They could even be parents, other family members, friends or neighbours. This, however, does not mean that all those in positions of trust abuse children.
  • Children are vulnerable, especially over weekends and holidays when they are alone at home.
  • Parents or caregivers must always know where and with whom their children are.
  • Parents or caregivers must always act in the best interest the child.
  • Child protection starts at home and with one’s own family.


Tell someone:

  • If you are feeling threatened, tell someone that you trust.
  • Never allow abuse to become a secret between you and the abuser.
  • If someone has already abused you, do not protect him or her – yourself – report it.
  • If you are not believed, tell someone else. Go to a clinic and tell the sister, she must take action. You can report abuse at a police station, or a teacher you can trust to help report it. You can also call the toll-free Childline number at 0800 05 55 55.

Keep telling people what has happened until someone believes you and takes action to protect you.


  • Be informed about your rights as a child.
  • You have the right to say NO to any person who is doing saying things that you feel are wrong (even your parents). This will include someone who tries to touch your body or makes any proposals that you feel uncomfortable about.
  • Read about things that you do not understand like: sex, AIDS, how babies are born?, what is sexual, emotional and physical abuse? You do not have to be afraid or ashamed to ask questions about these things You can ask your parents, teachers or any adult you trust about these things, or you can call Childline.

Love yourself

  • Treasure your body, it is yours for your lifetime.
  • Respect yourself and others.
  • Value your own life – you are special.
  • A child who is aware is a well-protected child.

Be confident

  • Girl or boy, rich or poor, fat or thin, tall or short – carry yourself with confidence.
  • Do not give in to pressure from your friends or anybody else, stick to your principles.
  • Know your limits and respect the limits of others.
  • Girls and boys, protect and stand up for each other, for what is right.
  • If you are abused it can never be your fault – abusers will try and put the blame on you in an attempt to keep you from talking to others about the abuse.

Remember, preventing crimes against children is everybody’s business.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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DITOKELO tsa bana


Ngwana ke motho yomongwe leyo mongwe yoo a nago le mengwaga ya ka fase ga lesomeseswai (18).

Ka lona lebaka leo, bana ka moka ba Afrika Borwa le ba go tšwa dinageng tša boagišane, ba na le ditokelo.


  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go ba bana.
  • Bana ba ba le tokelo ya go hlokomelwa ke batswadi ba bona.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go hwetša dijo tšeo di lekanego le go dula ba phetše gabotse.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya hwetša tlhokomelo ya go feta ye kaone ge ba lwala.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go šireletšwa kotsing, ba be le madulo gape ba ikwe ba bolokegile.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go hwetša thuto.
  • Bana bao ba golofetšego ba na le tokelo ya go hwetša tlhokomelo ya moswananoši.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go bolela le go kwewa.


  • Mmušo go akaretšwa SAPS, o swanetše go dira ka moo o ka kgonago ka gona go šireletša bana bathong, go akaretšwa le batswading ba bona ge ba ba kweša bohloko.
  • Mmušo o swanetše go thuša go šireletša bana mehuteng ka moka ya dintwa tša mmeleng, tša monagano, tša kgobatšo ya mmele goba tshwaro yeo e fošagetšego.
  • Bana bao ba nago le mathata le molao, ba swanetše goswarwa ka tsela yeo e sa swanego le ya ba bagolo.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go šireletšwa maemong a dithulano tšeo go tšona go šomišwago dibetša.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go šireletšwa kgahlanong le go se hlokomelwe, go swarwa ka tsela yeo e fošagetšego, le go otlwa ka tsela yeo e tšwelego tseleng ke batswadi le bahlokomedi.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go bapala, gomme ba se dirišwe mešomo ya batho ba bagolo;ba swanetše go šireletšwa kgahlanong le go thwalwa mešomong, – goba go gapeletšwa go dira mešomo yeo e ilego go feleletša e file batho ba bangwe meputso.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go šireletšwa kgahlanong le ditsela ka moka tša tlaišo go akaretšwa merero ka moka ya thobalano.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya go šireletšwa kgahlanong le dilo tše kotsi le diokobatši.


Go robala le bana

  • Go gapeletša ngwana go go swaraswara.
  • Go bontšha ngwana diswantšho tša thobalano.
  • Go swara ngwana felo moo a sa nyakego o mo swara gona goba moo go sa swanelago.

Tlaišo ya mmele

  • Go betha le go gobatša ngwana – goba go imollela go selekega ga gago go yena.

Tlaišo ya maikutlo

  • Go nyefola, go tšhošetša le go roga ngwana.


  • Go se hlokomele ngwana ka tshwanelo go akaretša go se mo hlapiše, go se mo apeše le go se mo fepe.


  • Gantši bana ba tlaišwa ke batho bao ba ba tsebago. E ka ba batho bao ba dirišago maemo a bona a go tshepega ka go tlaiša bana mola e le bona ba swanetše go go ba šireletša. E ka ba batswadi,meloko ye mengwe, goba baagišane. Le ge go le bjalo, ga se gore ka moka bao ba lego maemong a tshepo batlaiša bana.
  • Bana ba dula ba le kotsing, kudu mafelelong a beke, le nakong tša makhutšo le ge ba le tee ka gae.
  • Batswadi le bahlokomedi mabakeng ka moka ba swanetše go dula ba tseba gore bana ba bona ba kae, le gore ba na le bomang?
  • Batswadi goba bahlokomedi ba swanetše go dula ba dira dilo tšeo di thabišago bana ba bona.
  • Tlhokomelo ya bana e thona ka gae lapeng la gabo motho.


Botša motho yo mongwe:

  • Ge o ikwa o na le letswalo goba letšhogo, botša motho yoo o mo tshepago.
  • O seke wa dumela tlaišo e be sephiri gareng ga ga go le motho yoo a go tlaišago.
  • Ge motho a kile a go tlaiša o se be wa leka wa mo šireletša -itšhireletše – bega taba yeo maphodiseng.
  • Ge motho yoo o mmotšago a sa go tshepe, botša motho yo mongwe. Eya kliniking o botše mooki. O swanetše go tšea magato. O ka bega tlaišo seteišeneng sa maphodisa, goba wa kgopela morutiši yoo o mo tshepago go go thuša go bega maphodiseng. Gape o ka leletša nomoro ya mogala ya Childline yeo e sa lefelwego go 0800 05 55 55.

Tšwela pele go botša batho ka ga seo se diregilego go fihla ge yo mongwe a a tshepa seo o se bolelago gomme a tšea magato go go šireletša.


  • Tseba ka ga ditokelo tša gago bjalo ka ngwana.
  • O na le tokelo ya gore AOWA, mothong yo mongwe le yo mongwe yoo o – bonago a dira dilo tša go tšwa tseleng (le ge e ka ba batswadi ba gago). Go akaretšwa motho mang le mang yoo a ka lekago go swara mmele wa gago goba a dira dilo tšeo di go dirago gore o se ikwe o thabile.
  • Bala ka dilo tšeo o sa di kwešišego, go swana le: thobalano, AIDS, pelego ya bana, tlaišo ya thobalano, maikutlo, le mmeleng ke eng? Ga o a swanela go tšhoga goba go lewa ke dihlong go botšiša ka ga dilo tše. O ka botšiša batswadi ba gago, barutiši goba motho yo mongwe le yo mongwe yo mogolo yoo o mo tshepago ka ga dilo tše, goba o ka leletšaChlildline mogala. Ngwana yoo a nago le tsebo, ke ngwana yoo a bolokegilego.


  • Hlokomela mmele wa gago, ke wa gago bophelo bja gago ka moka.
  • Itlhomphe o hlomphe le batho ba bangwe.
  • Itlhokomele – o motho yoo bohlokwa.

E ba le boitshepo

  • O ka ba o le mošimane goba mosetsana, mohumi goba mohloki, wa go nona goba wa go ota, yo motelele goba yo mokopana, e ba le boitshepo.
  • O se ke wa dumela go gapeletšwa ke bagwera ba gago goba motho yo mongwe. Phegelela go maitshwaro a gago.
  • Tseba mellwane ya gago gomme o hlomphe mellwane ya ba bangwe.
  • Basetsana le bašimane šireletšanang gomme le eme gotee ditabeng tšeo di lokilego.
  • Ge e le gore o a tlaišwa e ka se tsoge e bile phošo ya gago -batlaiši ba tla leka go go bea molato ka maikemišetšo a go go thibela gore o se ke wa bolela le batho ba bangwe ka ga tlaišo.

Gopola, go thibela bosenyi kgalhanong le bana ke mosomo wa motho yo mongwe le yo mongwe.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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AMALUNGELO wabentwana


Umntwana nginanyana ngubani oneminyaka yobudala engaphasi kwe 18.

Umthetho ophakemeko weSewula Afrika, ekuMthethosisekelo, uthi boke abantu abaneminyaka engaphasi kwe18 ubudala, banamalungelo wabantwana. Ngalokho-ke, boke abentwana beSewula banamalungelo.


Abentwana banelungelo lokuba bentwana. Abentwana banelungelo lokutlhogonyelwa babelethi babo, imindeni nabatlhogomeli babo. Abentwana banelungelo lokufumana ukudla okweneleko bona bahlale baphilile. Abentwana banelungelo letjhejo eliphambili lezamaphilo nabagulako. Abentwana banelungelo lokuvikelwa ekulimaleni, nokuba nendawoyokuhlala, nokuzizwa baphephile. Abentwana banelungelo leFundo.Abentwana abarholopheleko banelungelo letjhejo elikhethekileko.Abentwana banelungelo lokuzikhulumela begodu balalelwe.


Urhulumende, ekubalwa hlangana nesipholisa, kufuze benze ngakho koke okusemandleni wabo, ukuvikela abentwana ebantwini ababalimazako, ekubalwa hlangana nabo nababelethi babo. Urhulumende kufuze asize abentwana ngokubavikela kizo zoke iindlela zokukhahlunyezwa emzimbeni namkha engqondweni, ukubetjhwa namkha ukutlhoriswa. Abentwana abaphambuke emthethweni, banelungelo lepatho ekhethekileko. Abentwana banelungelo lokuvikelwa ngaphasi kobujamo bezipi. Abentwana banelungelo lokuvikelwa ekutlhorisweni , nokungatjhejwa nokujeziswa ngokungakafaneli babelethi , nabatlhogomeli babo.Abentwana banelungelo lokudlala, nokuthi bangenziswa imisebenzi yabantu abadala:- bavikelwe ezenzweni zokusetjenziswa, nokukatelelwa bona basetjenziswe ngabanye abantu ukwenza imali.Abentwana banelungelo lokuvikelwa kizo zoke izenzo zokucatjazwa nokutlhoriswa ngokomseme. Abentwana banelungelo lokuvikelwa enselweni ezingakabafaneli neendakamizweni. Abentwana kufuze bavikelwe.


  • Ukumtlhorisa ngokomseme.
  • Ukukatelela umntwana bona akuthinde.
  • Ukutjengisa umntwana iinthombe ezingakavuthwa,ezisileko.
  • Ukuthinda umntwana la angafuni khona.
  • Ukutlhorisa umntwana ngokomzimba.
  • Ukumbetha, ukumlimaza namkha ukudanela phezu kwakhe nawunemimiraro.
  • Ukumtlhorisa ngokwemizwa.
  • Ukumnyaza, ukumthusela namkha ukumrharameja.
  • Ukungamtjheji.
  • Ukungamtlhogomeli ngendlela ekuthlogonyelwa ngayo umntwana, njengokuthi-ungamhlambisi, umembathise namkha umuphe ukudla.


  • Abatlhorisi babentwana esikhathini esinengi umntwana usuke abazi.
  • Bangaba babelethi bakhe, abakhozi, abomakhelwana namkha amanye amalunga womndeni.
  • Bangaba babantu abasebenzisa ubujamo bokuthembeka kwabo ngendlela engakafaneli ngokutlhorisaabentwana kunobana babavikele.
  • Bangaba bazali namkha amalungu womndeni, abangani namkha abomakhelwana.
  • Nokho lokho akutjho bona boke abantu basebenzisa ubujamo babo ekutlhoriseni abentwana.
  • Abentwana babasengozini, khulu khulu nakuyipelaveke, nangamaholideyi nabasele bodwa emakhaya.
  • Ababelethi namkha abatlhogomeli kufuze ngaso soke isikhathi bahlale bazi bona ukuphi nokuthi unobani lapho akhona umntwana.
  • Ababelethi namkha abatlhogomeli koke abakwenzako kufuze kubonelele ihlangothi lomntwana.
  • Ukuvikelwa komntwana kuthoma ekhaya, emndenini womntwana loyo.


Akube nomuntu omtjelako:

  • Nawuzizwa wesaba, akube nomuntu omthembako omtjelako. Ungavumeli bona ukutlhoriswa kwakho kube yifihlo yakho naloyo okutlhorisileko.
  • Nayikhibe sekunomuntu okutlhorisileko ungamvikeli-zivikele wena bika.
  • Nayikhibe abakukholwa, tjela omunye.
  • Khamba uye eklinigi utjele inesi, kufuze kube negadango alithathako.
  • ungabika ukutlhoriswa epolistetjhi, namkha bawa utitjhere Omthembako akusize ukuyokubika.
  • Ungabetha nomrhala wasimahla umRhalabentwana enomborweni 0800 05 55 55.

Ragela phambili nokutjela abantu okwenzekileko ukufikela la kuba nomunye okukholwako, bese kuba negadango alithathako lokukuvikela.


  • Hlathululewa ngamalungelo wakho njengomntwana.
  • Unelungelo lokwala namkha lokuthi awa- kinanyana ngubani okhuluma namkha owenza izinto ozibona zingakalungi (ngitjho nakubabelethi bakho imbala). Lokho kufaka hlangana umuntu ofuna ukukuphathaphatha umzimba namkha ofuna ukwenza izinto ongazithandiko kuwe.
  • Funda ngezinto ongazaziko: ezifana nokuya emsemeni, intumbantonga, nokuthi umntwana ubelethwa njani? Nokuthi khuyini ukutlhoriswa ngokomseme, nangokomzimba nangokwemizwa. Ungesabi namkha uphathwe mahloni ukubuza imibuzo ngezintwezi. Ungabuza ababelethi, amatitjhere namkha umuntu woke omdala omthembako ngezintwezi namkha ubethele iChildline umtato.
  • Umntwana ohlala atjhejile mntwana ovikelekileko.
  • Zithande Wuthande umzimbakho, ngewakho ubuphilo bakho boke.
  • Zihloniphe, uhloniphe nabanye abantu.
  • Zikhakhazise ngepilo yakho-Ungokhethekileko.


  • Umsana namkha umntazana, usutha namkha utlhaga, Unomzimba namkha unganamzimba, umude namkha umfitjhani-hlala uzithembe.
  • Ungavumeli ukugandelelwa bangani namkha omnye umntu. Landela imibandela yakho. Yazi bona usebenzisana ukufika kuphi nomnye umntu, yaye azi bona usebenzisana ukufika kuphi nawe. Abesana nabentazana, vikelanani nijamelane-kokufaneleko.
  • Nawutlhorisiweko ayisimlandwakho. Abatlhorisi bazakulinga ukubeka umlandu phezu kwakho ukwenzela bona ungatjeli abanye ngo kutlhoriswa kwakho.
  • Khumbula, ukuvimbela ubelelesi phezu kwabentwana kumsebenzi wawo wonke umuntu.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s Contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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DITOKELO tsa bana


Ngwana ke motho ofe kapa ofe ya ka tlase ho dilemo tse 18.

Molao o ka sehloohong wa Afrika Borwa, eleng Molao wa Motheo, o fana ka tiisetso ya hore batho bohle ba ka tlase ho dilemo tse 18 ba na le ditokelo tsa bana. Ka hoo, bana bohle ba Afrika Borwa , ho akaretswa le ba dinaha tse ding, ba na le ditokelo.


  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho ba bana.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho hlokomelwa ke batswadi ba bona, ba malapa a bona le bahlokomedi.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho ba le dijo tse ekaneng hore ba dule ba phetse ba shahlile.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho fumana tlhokomelo e tswileng matsoho ya bophelo ha ba kula.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho sireletswa dikotsing, ho ba le sebaka sa bodulo le ho bolokeha.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho fumana thuto.
  • Bana ba qhwadileng ba na le ditokelo tsa ho fumana tlhokomelo e ikgethang.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho ipuella mme ba mamelwe.


  • Mmuso ho akaretswa le SAPS, ba tshwanela ho etsa eng kapa eng ho sireletsa bana ho batho, ho akaretswa le ho batswadi ba bona ba ba utlwisang bohloko.
  • Mmuso o tshwanetse ho thusa tshireletsong ya bana ho mefuta yohle ya tshohlo mmeleng le kelellong, kotsing kapa tlhekefetsong.
  • Bana ba mathateng kgahlanong le molao ba na le tokelo ya ho fumana tlhokomelo e ikgethang.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho sireletswa maemong ao ho bang le qhwebeshano ho hlometswe.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho sireletswa kgahlanong le ho se kgathallwe, tshotlo, ho otlwa ke batswadi ba bona le bahlokomedi ba bona.
  • Bana ba na le tokelo ya ho bapala mme ba se ke ba etsiswa mesebetsi ya batho ba hodileng; ho sireletswa kgahlanong le ho sebediswa ha bana – le ho qobellwa ho sebetsa bakeng sa ho etsa ditjhelete bakeng sa batho ba bang.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho sireletswa kgahlanong le mefuta yohle ya ho hlekefetsa ka thobalano le ya ho sotlwa ka thobalano.
  • Bana ba na le ditokelo tsa ho sireletswa kgahlanong le dintho tse kotsi le dithethefatsi. Bana ba Tshwanetse ho sireletswa kgahlanong le ho sebediswa ho etsa kapa ho hweba ka dithethefatsi.


Tlhekefetso ka thobalano

  • Ho qobella ngwana ho o ama.
  • Ho bontsha ngwana thepa ya batho ba lepona (pornographic material).
  • Ho ama ngwana moo a sa batleng ho angwa teng ha ho sa  tshwanela.

Ho hlekefetswa mmeleng

  • Ho otla kapa ho utlwisa ngwana bohloko – kapa ho ntshetsa malokobe a hao ho yena.

Ho hlekefetswa moyeng

  • Ho nyatsa, ho tshosa kapa ho omanya ngwana.

Ho se hlokomelwe

  • Ho se hlokomelwe hantle ha ngwana, mohlala ho se mo hlwekisi, ho mo apesa diphahlo kapa ho se mo fepe.


  • Bana ba atisa ho tseba bao ba ba hlekefetsang. Bona e ka ba batho ba sebedisang maemo a bona ka tsela e sa lokang ka ho hlekefetsa bana empa e le bona ba tshwanetseng ho ba sireletsa. e ka nna ya ba batswadi ba hae, ditho tse ding tsa lelapa, metswalle kapa baahisani. le ha ho le jwalo, hona ha ho bolele hore bohle leng ba maemong a tshepahalang ke bona ba hlekefetsang bana.
  • Bana ha ba sireletseha, haholoholo mafelong a beke le matsatsing a phomolo ha ba le bang mahabobona.
  • Batswadi kapa bahlokomedi ba tshwanetse ho tseba hore bana ba bona ba hokae ebile ba na le bo mang.
  • Batswadi kapa bahlokomedi ba tshwanetse ho etsa tsohle molemong wa ngwana.
  • Tshireletso ya bana e qala lapeng ka ditho tsa lelapa.


Tsebisa motho e mong:

  • Haeba o tshohile tsebisa motho e mong eo o mo tshepang.
  • O se ke wa dumella tlhekefetso hore e be sephiri sa hao le ya o hlekefetsang.
  • Haeba motho e mong a se a kile a o hlekefetsa, o se ke wa mo sireletsa – itshireletse- tlaleha ketsahalo eo.
  • Haeba ho se ya o kgolwang, tsebisa motho e mong hape. Eya kliliniking mme o tsebise mooki, mme yena o tshwanetse ho nka mehato e itseng. O ka tlaleha tlhekefetso seteisheneng sa maponesa, kapa titjhere eo o e tshepang hore eo thuse ho tlaleha taba eo. Hape o ka letsetsa nomorong ena ya mahala ya Childline e leng 0800 05 55 55.

Tswelapele ho tsebisa batho hore ho etsahetse eng ho fihlela ho ba le motho ya o kgolwang mme a nka mehato ya ho o sireletsa


  • Tseba ka ditokelo tsa hao jwalo ka ngwana.
  • O na le tokelo ya ho re TJHE ho motho ofe kapa ofe ya ho etsang ho hong kapa ya buwang dintho tseo o nahanang hore di fosahetse (le ha e le batswadi ba hao). Sena se tla akaretsa motho ya lekang ho o thetsa kapa ya etsang ditshisinyo tseo o sa di thabeleng.
  • Bala ka dintho tse o sa di utlwisiseng tse jwalo ka: thobalano, AIDS, hore na bana ba belehwa jwang?, hore ke eng thobalano, tlhekefetso ya moyeng le mmeleng? O se ke wa tshaba kapa wa ba le dihlong ho botsa dipotso ka dintho tsena. O ka botsa batswadi ba hao, matitjhere kapa motho e moholo eo o mo tshepang ka dintho tsena, kapa o letsetse ba Childline.

Ngwana ya fadimehileng mme a tseba dintho ke ngwana ya bolokehileng Ithate

  • Baballa mmele wa hao, ke wa hao bophelo ba hao bohle.
  • Itlhomphe mme o be o hlomphe batho ba bang.
  • Itlhokomele – o ya kgethehileng .Itshepe
  • Ngwanana kapa moshemane, morui kapa mofutsana, o le motelele kapa o le mo kgutswane – itshepe.
  • O se ke wa mamela se sa lokang seo o se bolellwang ke metswalle ya hao kapa motho e mong. Etsa seo wena o bonang se o loketse.
  • Tseba meedi ya hao mme o hlomphe meedi ya ba bang.
  • Banana le bashemane, itshereletseng mme le hlokomelane bakeng sa ntho e nepahetseng.
  • Ha o ka hlekefetswa, hoo e ke ke ya ba molato wa hao – batho ba hlekefetsang ba bang ba tla leka ho beha molato ho wena ka maiteko a ho etsa hore o se ke wa bua le batho ba bang ka tlhekefetso.

Hopola, ho thibela botlokotsebe kgahlanong le bana ke boikarabelo ba motho e mong le e mong.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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Emalungelo ebantfwana


Umntfwana ngumuntfu loneminyaka lengephasi kweminyaka le-18 budzala.

Umtsetfo lophakeme waseNingizimu Afrika, lokuMtsetfosisekelo, uvikela amalungelo awonkhe umuntfu loneminyaka lengephasi kwa-18 budzala. Ngako-ke, bonkhe bantfwana eNingizimu Afrika, labaka ekhatsi bantfwana lababuya emaveni langaphandle, banawo emalungelo.


  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekuba bantfwana.
  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekunakekelwa batali, ngumndeni nalabo lababagadzako.
  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekutfola kudla lokwanele kute bahlale baphilile.
  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekutfola kunakekelwa lokukahle kutepmhilo nangabe bagula.
  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekuvikelwa etingotini, nekutsi babenendzawo yekufihla inhloko.
  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekufundza.
  • Bantfwana labakhubatekile banelilungelo lekunakekelwa lokusipesheli.
  • Bantfwana banelilungelo lekukhuluma futsi balalelwe.


Hulumende, ngekusitwa Maphoyisa aseNingizimu Afrika (iSAPS), kufanele ente konkhe lokusemandleni akhe kutsi aphephise bantfwana ebantfwini, lababalimatako, lafaka ekhatsi nebatali. Hulumende kumele avikele bantfwana kuyo yonkhe indlela yekuhlukunyetwa lekhona, nekuhlukunyetwa kwengondvo, kwemtimba nekulimala. Bantfwana labaphule umtsetfo banelilungelo lekuphatfwa ngekucaphelwa lokusipesheli. Bantfwana banelilungelo lekuvikelwa esimeni sekucabana ngetimphi.Bantfwana banelilungelo lekugadvwa ngaso sonkhe sikhatsi, bavikelwe ekuhlukumetweni bangajeziswa,batali nalabo laba ba gadzako. Bantfwana banelilungelo lekwala kwenta umsebenti webantfu labadzala;nekusetjentiswa ngenkhani kutsi bente imali bayentele labanye. Bantfwana banelilungelo lekuvikelwa kuto tonkhe tindlela tekuhlukunyetwa kutemacasi. Bantfwana banelilungelo lekuvikeleka kulabo labasebentisa tidzakamiva.Bantfwana banelilungelo lekuvikeleka kutsi bangasetjentiselwa kutsi batsengise tidzakamiva.


  • Kuhlukunyetwa ngekwelicasi.
  • Kuphocelela umntfwana kutsi akutsintse.
  • Kukhombisa umntfwana titfombe temacasi.
  • Kutsintsa umntfwana lapho angafuni kutsintswa khona futsi lapho kungakafaneli.
  • Kuhlukumetwa lokubonakalako.
  • Kushaya noma kulimata umntfwana noma ukhiphe tinkinga takho etikwakhe.
  • Kuhlukunyetwa ngekwemizwa.
  • Kukhipha sitfunti, kutfusa noma kukwatisa umntfwana.
  • Kunganakeleli umntfwana.
  • Kungagadzi kahle umntfwana.
  • Loku kufana nekunga- muphi kudla, kungamugezi nekungamuwasheli timpahia.


Bantfwana ngalokuvamile bayabati bantfu lababahluphako. Kungaba ngulabo bantfu labasebentisa tikhundla tabo tekutsenjwa ngendlela lengakafaneli. Bantfwana abakavikeleki, ikakhulukati ngemphelasontfo nangemaholide nangesikhatsi babodvwa ekhaya. Batali noma bantu labagadza bantfwana kufuneka ngaso sonkhe sikhatsi bati kutsi bakuphi banabani bantfwana babo. Batali noma bantu labagadza bantfwana kufuneka ngaso sonkhe sikhatsi bente lokuhle lokuyintsandvo yemntfwana. Kuvikela umntfwana kucala ekhaya futsi nakulowo lonemndeni.


Tjela lomunye:

  • Uma utiva usatjiswa, tjela umuntfu lometsembako.
  • Ungavumeli kuhlukunyetwa kube yimfihlo emkhatsini wakho nemhlukumeti.
  • Umangabe sekukhona lasake wakuhlukumeta, ungamvikeli -tivikele wena -kubike.
  • Uma ungatsenjwa, tjela lomunye umuntfu futsi. Hamba uye emtfolamphilo uyotjela sista wasemtfolamphilo, kufanele atsatse tinyatselo. Ungakubika kuhlukunyetwa esiteshini semaphoyisa, noma ucele thishela longametsemba longakuncedza kutsi ayo kubikela kona. Futsi ungashaya lenombolo yamahala iChildline ku 0800 05 55 55.

Chubeka ngekubatjela kutsi kwentekeni kute lomunye akutsembe atsatse tinyatselo tekukuvikela.


  • Wati emalungelo akho njengemntfwana.
  • Unalo lilungelo lekutsi CHA kunobe ngubani (ngisho nebatali bakho) loku kutawufaka ekhatsi umuntfu lotama kukuphatsaphatsa umtimba wakho noma akusome ngendlela lengakujabulisi.
  • Fundza ngetintfo lengatsi awutivisisi kahle: kulalana, I-AIDS, batfolwa njani ebantfwana? Kuyini kulalana, kukwata nje nekuhlukumeta? Akufuneki kutsi utfuke noma usabe kubuta imibuto.
  • Umntwana lonelwati ngumntwana lovikelekile.

Titsandze wena Gcina umtimba wakho, ngewakho sonkhe sikhatsi sakho sekuphila.

Tihloniphe wena nalabanye.

  • Nakekela imphilo yakho, usipesheli.


  • Ungaba ngumfana noma intfombatane, uphuyile noma unemali, unonile noma wondzile tiphatse ngekutetsemba.

Ungentiswa ngenkhani into longayitsandzi bangani noma ngabe ngubani, gcila kumibandzela yakho. Yati lizinga lakho futsi uhloniphe emazinga alabanye.

Bafana nemantfombatane vikelanani nimelane, ngaloko lokuhle.Nangabe uke wahlukunyetwa angake kube liphutsa lakho – bahlukumeti batawetama kutsi bafake tinsolo kuwe ngekutsi bafuna kutsi ugcine ungakakhulumi kulabanye ngalokuhlukunyetwa.

Khumbula, kuvikela bantwana ekuhlukunyetweni ngumsebenti wawonkhe umuntfu.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a and secure South Africa!

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N’wana i munhu un’wana na un’wana wa malembe ya le hansi ka 18 hi vukhale.

Nawu lowukulu wa le Afrika Dzonga, lowu nga Vumbiwa, wu tiyisisa leswaku vanhu hinkwavo va malembe ya le hansi ka 18 hi vukhale, va na timfanelo ta vana. Hikokwalaho, vana hinkwavo va le Afrika Dzonga, ku katsa na vana huma ematikweni yan’wana, va na timfanelo.


  • Vana va na mfanelo yo va vana.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo kuma nhlayiso wa vatswari va vona, va ndyangu na vahlayisi.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo kuma swakudya leswi eneleke leswaku va ta tshama va hanye kahle.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo kuma nhlayiso wa rihanyu wo antswa lowu nga vaka kona loko va vabya.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo kuma nsirhelelo eka khombo, ku va na vutumbelo no titwa va hlayisekile.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo kuma dyondzo.
  • Vana lava tsoniweke va na mfanelo yo kuma nhlayiso wo hlawuleka.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo vulavula no twiwa.


  • Mfumo, ku katsa na SAPS, va fanele ku endla hi tindlela hinkwato leti nga kona leswaku va sirhelela vana eka vanhu, ku katsa na le ka vatswari va vona, lava va vavisaka.
  • Mfumo wu fanele ku pfuneta ku sirhelela vana eka tinxaka hinkwato ta madzolonga lama kongomisiweke emirini kumbe emiehleketweni, ku vaviseka na ku khomiwa hi tihanyi.
  • Vana lava nga le khombyeni etimhakeni ta nawu va na mfanelo yo khomiwa hi ndlela yo hlawuleka.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo sirheleriwa eka swiyimo swa minkwetlembetano ya lava hlomeke.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo sirheleriwa eka ntolovelo wo ka va nga hlayisiwi kahle, ku xanisiwa na matshinyele lama onhaka xiyimo xa vona yo huma eka vatswari na vahlayisi.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo tlanga no ka va nga endli mintirho ya vanhu lavakulu; ku sirheleriwa eka ku tirhisiwa ka vana – na ku sindzisiwa ku tirha leswaku va ta endlela vanhu van’wana mali.
  • Vana va na mfanelo yo sirheleriwa eka tindlela hinkwato ta ku xanisiwa etimhakeni ta masangu na ku khomiwa hi tihanyi etimhakeni ta masangu.
  • Vana va na mfanelo wo sirheleriwa eka swinwiwa swa khombo na swidzidziharisi.
  • Vana va fanele ku sirheleriwa eka ku tirhisiwa ku endla kumbe ku xavisa swidzidziharisi.


Ku khomiwa hi tihanyi etimhakeni ta masangu

  • Ku sindzisa n’wana ku ku khoma-khoma.
  • Ku sindzisa n’wana ku languta swifaniso swa vanhu lava nga ambalangiki.
  • Ku khoma-khoma n’wana laha a nga swi tsakeliki ku khomiwa kona na loko swi nga fanelanga.
  • Ku khomiwa hi tihanyi emirini
  • Ku ba kumbe ku vavisa n’wana – kumbe ku hundzisela ku tikeriwa ka wena eka n’wana.
  • Ku khomiwa hi tihanyi emiehleketweni
  • Ku tekela ehansi, ku xungeta kumbe ku ba huwa eka n’wana.

Ku nga hlayisiwi

  • Ku ka n’wana a nga hlayisiwi kahle, xikombiso, ku va a nga hlambisiwi, ku ambexiwa kumbe ku phamela n’wana.


  • Vanhu lava xanisaka vana va tala ku va lava tiviwaka hi vana. Va nga va vanhu lava tirhisaka swiyimo swa vona swo tshembeka ku xanisa vana ematshan’wini yo sirhelela vana. Va nga va vatswari, vanghana, va-akelani kumbe swirho swin’wana swa ndyangu. Kambe hambi swi ri tano, leswi a swi vuli leswaku vanhu hinkwavo lava nga eka swiyimo swo tshembeka va xanisa vana.
  • Vana a va hlayisekangi, ngopfu-ngopfu ekuheleni ka vhiki na hi masiku yo wisa loko va ri voxe emakaya.
  • Vatswari kumbe vahlayisi va fanele ku tshama va swi tiva laha vana va vona va nga kona, na leswaku va na mani.
  • Vatswari kumbe vahlayisi va fanele ku tshama va endla leswi landzelelaka ku navela ka n’wana.
  • Nsirhelelo wa n’wana wu sungula ekaya naswona eka ndyangu wa wena n’winyi.


Byela un’wana:

  • Loko u twa u xungetiwa, byela un’wana loyi u n’wi tshembaka.
  • Loko ku ri na un’wana loyi a nga ku khoma hi tihanyi, u nga n’wi sirheleli – tisirhelele – endla xiviko. Loko ku ri hava loyi a ku kholwaka, byela un’wana. Ya na ekliniki kutani u ya byela muongorinkulu ekliniki, u fanele ku teka magoza. U nga vika ku xanisiwa exitichini xa maphorisa, kumbe u kombela mudyondzisi loyi u n’wi tshembaka leswaku a ku pfuna vika. Nakambe u nga fonela nomboro ya toll-free ya Childline eka 0800 05 55 55.

Tshama u karhi u byela vanhu leswi nga humelela ku fikela loko un’wana a ku kholwa kutani a teka magoza yo ku sirhelela.


  • Kuma vutivi mayelana na timfanelo ta vana.
  • U na mfanelo wo vula leswaku E-E eka munhu un’wana na un’wana loyi a endlaka kumbe ku vulavula hi swilo leswi u twaka leswaku swi hoxekile (hambi ku ri vatswari va wena). Leswi swi ta katsa un’wana loyi a ringetaka ku khumba miri wa wena kumbe ku endla xiringanyeto lexi u twaka xi nga ku tsakisi.
  • Hlaya hi swilo leswi u nga swi twisisiki, swo fana na: timhaka ta masangu, AIDS, xana vana va velekiwaka hi ndlela yihi?, swi vula yini ku khomiwa hi tihanyi etimhakeni ta masangu, emiehleketweni na le mirini?. A wu fanelangi ku chava kumbe ku nyuma ku vutisa swivutiso hi swilo leswi. U nga vutisa vatswari va wena, vadyondzisi kumbe nkulukumba un’wana ni un’wana loyi u n’wi tshembaka hi swilo leswi, kumbe u fonela childline.
  • N’wana loyi a nga na vutivi i n’wana loyi a sirhelekeke kahle.

Ti rhandze

  • Hlayisa miri wa wena, i wa wena vutomi bya wena hinkwabyo.
  • Ti xixime u tlhela u xixima van’wana.
  • Teka vutomi bya wena byi ri bya nkoka – u munhu wo hlawuleka.

Ti tshembe

  • U nhwanyana kumbe u mufana, u fuwile kumbe u le vuswetini, u nyuherile kumbe u ondzile, u lehile kumbe u komile – va na na vutitshembi.
  • Swi tive leswaku u nga famba ku fika kwihi na munghana kumbe munhu un’wana naswona u tiva swipimelo leswi van’wana va nga na swona eka wena.
  • Vanhwanyana na vafana, ti sirheleleni naswona mi hlayisana, eka leswi nga leswinene.
  • Loko u xanisiwa a hi xihoxo xa wena – vanhu lava ku xanisaka va ta ringeta ku ku sola hi ndlela yo ringeta ku ku sivela leswaku u vulavula na vanhu van’wana hi ku xanisiwa ka wena.
  • Tsundzuka, ku sivela vukhamba eka vana i vutihlamuleri bya vanhu hinkwavo.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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Ngwana ke mongwe le mongwe yo o ka fa tlase ga dingwaga di le 18.

Molao o mogolo wa Afrika Borwa e leng moalotheo, o netefaletsa gore botlhe ba ba leng ka fa tlase ga dingwaga di le 18, ba na le ditshwanelo tsa bana. Ka jalo bana botlhe mo Afrika Borwa, go akarediwa le bana go tswa kwa dinaga tse dingwe, ba na le ditshwanelo.


  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go nna bana.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go tlhokomelwa ke batsadi ba bona, balelapa le batho ba ba abelanang ka tlhokomelo.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go newa dijo tse di siameng gore ba nne ba itekanetse.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa tlhokomelo e e kgonagalang yaboitekanelo fa ba bobola.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go sirelediwa kgatlhanong le dikgobalo, go nna le bonno le go ikutlwa ba babalesegile.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa thuto.
  • Bana ba ba golofetseng ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go newa tlhokomelo e e kgethegileng.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go buwa le go reediwa.


  • Puso go akarediwa le SAPS, e tshwanetse ya dira sengwe le sengwe se e ka se kgonang go sireletsa bana go tswa mo bathong ba ba utlwisang botlhoko go akarediwa le batsadi ba bone.
  • Puso e tshwanetse go thusa bana kgatlhanong le mefuta yotlhe ya go ketikiwa , go  utlwisiwa botlhoko mo tlhaloganyong, go gobadiwa kgotsa go sotliwa.
  • Bana ba ba nang le mathata le molao, ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go newa tlhokomelo e e kgethegileng.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go sireletswa mo maemong a go nang le tiriso-dikgoka.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go sireletswa kgatlhanong le go itlhokomolosiwa, go sotliwa mmogo le otlhaiwa go gotseneletseng ke batsadi le batlhokomedi.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go tshameka le go se dire ditiro tsa bagolo, go sireletswa kgatlhanong le go dira ba santse ba le bannye le go gapeletswa go direla ba bangwe madi.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go sireletswa kgatlhanong le mekgwa yotlhe ya thobalano mmogo le go sotlakakiwa ka thobalano.
  • Bana ba na le ditshwanelo tsa go sireletswa kgatlhanong le didiriswa tse di botlhole le diritibatsi. Bana ba tshwanetse go sireletswa mo go dirisetsweng go dira kgotsa go rekisa diretebatsi.


Tshotlo ka thobalano

  • Go gapeletsa ngwana go go kgoma.
  • Go bontsha ngwana ditshwantsho tse di ka ga thobalano.
  • Go kgoma ngwana fa a sa rateng go ka kgomiwa fa go se matshwanedi.

Go ketekiwa

  • Go betsa kgotsa go utlwisa ngwana botlhoko, gongwe go ntshetsa mathata a gago mo ngwaneng.

Go sotla mo moweng

  • Go tshwenya, go tshosetsa kgotsa go omanya ngwana.

Go tlhokomologa

  • Go se tlhokomele ngwana sentle, sekao go se mo tlhapiseng, go sa mo apeseng le go mo fepa.


  • Go le gantsi batlhokofatsi ba a itsagale mo ngwaneng. E ka nna batho bao ba dirisang maemo a bone a botshepegi ka go sotla bana e tswa ba tlamega go ka bo ba sireletsa bana. E ka tswa e le batsadi, maloko a mangwe a lelapa, ditsala kgotsa baagisani. Fela seno ga se kae gore botlhe ba o ba leng mo maemong a botshepegi ba sotla bana.
  • Bana ba nna mo maemong a a kotsi gantsi mo bokhutlong jwa beke le ka malatsi a boikhutso fa bana ba le nosi kwa gae.
  • Batsadi kgotsa batlhokomedi ba tshwanetse go nna ba ntse ba itse gore bana ba bona ba kae le gore ba na le bomang.
  • Ka dinako tsotlhe batsadi le batlhokomedi ba tshwanetse go dira tsotlhe se di mo dikgatlhegelong tsa ngwana.
  • Tshireletsego ya ngwana ngwana go simolola kwa lapeng, ka lelapa la mongwe le mongwe.


Bolelela mongwe:

  • Fa o ikutlwa o tshosetsegile, bolelela mongwe yo o mo tshepang.
  • Se letle tshotlo go nna sephiri magareng ga gago le motho yo o go sotlang.
  • Fa mongwe a setse a go sotlile, se mo sireletse, itshireletse mme o bege ka tiragalo eo.
  • Fa o bona o sa dumelwe, bolelela mongwe. E ya kwa tleleniking mme o bolelele mooki yo o tshwanetseng go tsaya kgato. O ka bega go sotliwa kwa seteisheneng sa mapodise kgotsa wa kopa morutabana yo o ka mo tshepang go go thusa go bega. O ka leletsa gape mogala o o sa duelelweng wa Childline mo nomorong ya 0800 05 55 55.

Tswelela go bolelela batho ka ga se se go diragaletseng go fitlha mongwe a go dumela le go tsaya dikgato go go sireletsa


  • Itse ka ga ditshwanelo tsa gago jaaka ngwana.
  • O na le ditshwanelo tsa go GANA go motho yo o dirang kgotsa go bua sengwe se o ikutlwang se sa siama ( tota le batsadi ba gago ). Seno se tla akaretsa le motho yo o lekang go kgoma mmele wa gago kgotsa a dira kopo ya dilo tseo di sa go itumediseng.
  • Buisa ka dilo tse o sa di tlhaloganyeng jaaka; thobalano, bolwetsi jwa AIDS, gore masea a belegwa jang?, go sotliwa mo moweng le go ketekiwa? Ga o a tshwanela go tshoga kgotsa go tlhabiwa ke ditlhong go botsisa dipotso ka ga dilo tse. O ka botsisa batsadi ba gago, barutabana kgotsa mogolo mongwe yo o mo tshepang ka ga dilo tse, kgotsa o ka leletsa Childline.

Ngwana yo o kelo-tlhoko, ke ngwana yo o sireletsegileng sentle.


  • Tlhokomela mmele wa gago, ke wa gago botshelo jotlhe jwa gago.
  • Itlotle mme o tlole le ba bangwe.
  • Tsaya tsia botshelo jwa gago – o kgethegile.

Nna motlotlo ka wena

  • Mosetsana kgotsa mosimane, mohumi, mohumanegi, motho a bopame kgotsa a akotse, a le moleele kgotsa ale mokhutshwane, nna o ntse o le motlotlo.
  • O seke wa ineela mo kgatelelong go tswa kwa ditsaleng kgotsa mongwe fela. Itshetlege mo melawaneng ya gago.
  • Itse tekanyetso ya gago le go tlotla tekanyetso ya ba bangwe.
  • Basetsana le basimane, itshireletseng mme le babalelane go se se siameng.
  • Fa o sotlilwa ga e kake ya nna phoso ya gago – Batho ba ba sotlang ba tla leka go tshwaya wena phoso mo maitekong a go go tlogedisa go bolelela ba bangwe ka ga tshotlo.
  • Gakologelwa, go thibela bosenyi kgatlhanong le bana, ke maikarabelo a mongwe le mongwe.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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PFANELO dza vhana


Nwana ndi muthu munwe na munwe ane a kha di vha nga fhasi ha minwaha ya 18.

Mulayo muhulwane wa Afurika Tshipembe, une wa vha Mulayotewa, u khwathisedza zwauri vhathu vhothe vhane vha vha vha nga fhasi ha minwaha ya 18 vha wana pfanelo dza vhana. Ngauralo ha, vhana vhothe vha Afurika Tshipembe, ho katelwa na
vhana vha bvaho kha manwe mashango, vha na dzi pfanelo.


  • Vhana vha na pfanelo dza u vha vhana.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo dza u londolwa nga vhabebi vhavho, vhamuta na vhalondi vha vhana.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u wana zwiliwa zwo linganelaho uri vha dzule vhe na mutakalo.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u wana ndondolo yo teaho ya mutakalo musi vha tshi lwala.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u tsireledzwa kha zwithu zwine zwa nga vha vhaisa, vha tea u vha na fhethu hune vha dzula hone na upfa vho tsireledzea.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u funzea.
  • Vhana vho holefhalaho vha na pfanelo ya u wana ndondolo yo khetheaho.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u bvisa vhupfiwa havho na u thetsheleswa.


  • Muvhuso, ho katelwa na SAPS, u fanela u lingedza nga nungo dzothe u tsireledza vhana kha vhathu, ho katelwa na vhabebi vhavho, vhane vha vha tambudza.
  • Muvhuso u fanela u thusa u tsireledza vhana kha tshaka dzothe dza u vhaiswa ha muvhili na thalukanyo, u huvhadzwa kana u tambudzwa.
  • Vhana vhane vha vha khakhathini siani la zwa mulayo, vha na pfanelo ya u farwa zwavhudi.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u tsireledzwa kha tshiimo tsha phambano dzi re na zwithavhane.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u tsireledzwa malugana na u sa londolwa, u tambudzwa na ndatiso ine ya tsitsa tshirunzi nga vhabebi na vhalondoti.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u tamba na u sa ita mishumo ya vhathu vhahulwane, u tsireledzwa kha u shuma sa vhana – na u kombetshedzwa u shuma vha tshi itela vhanwe vhathu tshelede.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u tsireledzwa malugana na thambudzo dzothe dza zwa vhudzekani.
  • Vhana vha na pfanelo ya u tsireledzwa malugana na zwithu zwa khombo kana zwidzidzivhadzi. vhana vha fanela u tsireledzwa kha u shumiswa u vhambadza zwidzidzivhadzi.


Ndi u tambudzwa ha zwa vhudzekani

  • U kombetshedza nwana uri a u farafare.
  • U sumbedza nwana zwifanyiso zwa vhathu vha tshi khou ita zwa vhudzekani.
  • U fara nwana fhethu hune a sa tode u farwa hone zwi songo fanela.

U tambudzwa ha muvhili

  • U rwa kana u vhaisa nwana – kana u bvisela vuvu kha nwana.

U tambudzwa lwa muyani

  • U tsitsa tshirunzi, na u shushedza kana u tzhemela nwana.

U sa londa nwana

  • U sa nea nwana ndondolo yo teaho, sa tsumbo, u sa mutanzwa, u muambadza kana u mu nea zwiliwa.


  • Vhatambudzi vha vhana vha anzela u vha vhathu vhane nwana a vha divha. Vha nga vha vhathu vhane vha fulufhedzwa vha shumisa tshiimo tshenetsho u tambudza vhana madzuloni a uri vha vha tsireledze. Hezwo a zwi ambi uri vhathu vhothe vhane vha vha ka maimo a u fulufhedzwa ndi vhatambudzi vha vhana. Vhatambudzi vha vhana vha anzela u vha vhathu vhane nwana a vha divha. Vha nga vha vhathu vhane vha fulufhedzwa, vha shumisa tshiimo tshenetsho u tambudza vhana madzuloni a uri vha vha tsireledze. Hezwo a zwi ambi vhathu vhothe vhane vha vha kha maimo a u fulufhedzwa ndi vhatambudzi vha vhana.
  • Vhana vha fhurea zwavhudi, zwihulusa mafheloni a vhege na nga dziholodei musi vhe vhothe hayani.
  • Vhabebi kana vhalondi vha vhana vha fanela u divha zwauri vhana vhavho vha ngafhi na zwauri vha na nnyi.
  • Vhabebi na vhalondoti vha fanela u dzulela u takadza nwana.
  • Tsireledzo ya nwana ithoma hayani na kha muta wa nwana.


Ni vhudze munwe muthu:

  • Arali ni tshi pfa unga munwe muthu u khou ni shushedza, ni tea u vhudza muthu ane na mufulufhela.
  • Ni songo tenda u tambudzwa hu tshi vha tshiphiri vhakati hanu na mutambudzi.
  • Arali munwe muthu o no vhuya a ni Tambudza, ni songo mu tsireledza – ni tea u ditsireledza inwi mune.
  • Arali vha sa ni kholwi, vhudzani munwe muthu. Ni ye kiliniki ni vhudze sister wa kiliniki, u fanela u dzhia vhukando. Ni nga vhinga malandu wa u tambuzwa tshititshini tsha mapholisa kana ni humbele mudededzi ane na mufulufhela uri a ni thuse u vhinga malandu. Ni nga kha di founela mahala kha Childline kha nomboro heyi 0800 05 55 55.
  • Ni dzulele u vhudza vhathu uri ho bvelela mini u swikela munwe muthu a tshi ni kholwa na u dzhia ha u ni tsireledza.


  • Ni divhe pfanelo dzanu sa nwana.
  • Ni na pfanelo ya uri HAI kha munwe na munwe ane a khou ita zwithu zwine na vhona unga zwo khakhea (naho hu vhabebi vhanu). Hezwi zwi katela na muthu ane a lingedza u ni farafara muvhili kana a tshi ri ni ite zwithu zwine na pfa ni songo vhofholwa khazwo.

Ni tea u vhala nga ha zwithu zwine na sa zwi pfesese sa: zwa vhudzekani, AIDS, na zwauri vhana vha bebiwa hani? Ndi mini zwine zwa yelana na zwa vhudzekani, u tambudza muyani na u tambudzwa ha muvhili? Ni songo shavha u vhudzisa mbudziso nga ha zwithu izwo. Ni nga kha di vhudzisa vhabebi, vhadededzi kana muthu munwe na munwe muhulwa ne ane na mu fulufhela nga ha zwithu izwo, kana ni founele kha Childline.

Nwana ane a vha na nzhele ndi nwana o tsireledzeaho.


  • Ni thomphe muvhili wanu, ndi wanu vhutshilo hanu hothe.
  • Ni di thomphe inwi mune khathihi na vhanwe vhathu.
  • Ni dzhie vhutshilo hanu vhu ha ndeme – ni o khetheaho.


  • Naho na nga vha musidzana kana mutukana, no pfuma kana ni mushai, no khwatha kana no onda – ni tshimbile ni na vhudifhinduleli.
  • Ni songo tenda dzikhonani kana vhanwe vhathu vha tshi ni kombetshedza dzindila dzavho dzi si dzavhudi. Divhani zwithu zwine na ita ni dovhe ni thonifhe zwine vhanwe vha ita.
  • Vhatukana na vhasidzana, ni tsireledzane, na u imelana, kha zwine na vhona ngoho khazwo.
  • Arli no vhuya na tambudzwa zwi nga si vhuye zwa vha mulandu wanu – vhatambudzi vha do vheya mulandu kha inwi hu u itela uri ni sa vhudze vhanwe vhathu.

Ni humbule, u tsireledza u tambudzwa na u sa farwa zwavhudi ha vhana ndi mushumo washu rothe.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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AMALUNGELO abantwana


Umntwana ngumntu oneminyaka engaphantsi kwe18 ubudala.

Umthetho olawulayo kweli loMzantsi Afrika, mthetho lowo onguMgaqo siseko, uyakuqinisekisa ukuba bonke abantu abangaphantsi 18 ubudala, banawo amalungelo abantwana. Ngoko ke, bonke abantwana kweli loMzantsi Africa, oko kuquka nabantwana abaphuma kwamanye amazwe, banawo amalungelo.


  • Abantwana banelungelo lokuba ngabantwana.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokukhathalelwa ngabazali babo, iintsapho kwakunye nabantu ababancedayo.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokondliwa ukuze bahlale besegazini.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokunikwa unakekelo lwezempilo xa begula.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokukhuselwa bangenzakaliswa, babenendawo yokuhlala bazive bekhuselekile.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokufunda.
  • Abantwana abakhubazekileyo banelungelo lokufumana uhoyo olulodwa.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokuthetha into abayicingayo yaye bamanyelwe.


  • URhulumente, oko kuqula iNkonzo yamaPolisa, kufuneka enze konke anako ukukhusela abantwana ukuba bangonzakaliswa ngabanye abantu, oko kuquka nabazali babo.
  • Urhulumente kufuneka uncede ngokukhusela abantwana ukuba bangonzakaliswa ngokubethwa okanye baxhatshazwe.
  • Abantwana abajongene nomthetho banelungelo lokuphathwa ngendlela eyodwa.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokhuseleko kwiimeko zongquzulwano lwemfazwe.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokukhuselwa kwiimeko zokunganonotshelwa, ukuxhatshazwa kwakunye nokuqeqeshwa okuqatha okwenziwa ngabazali okanye ngabantu ababanonophelayo.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokudlala yaye bangenzi imisebenzi yabantu abadala, bakhuselwe bangaqeshwa – yaye banganyanzelwa ukuba basebenzele ingeniso yabanye abantu.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokukhuselwa kuzo zonke iindidi zokuxhatshazwa  ngokwesondo.
  • Abantwana banelungelo lokukhuselwa kuwo onke amachiza ayingozi kwakunye nakwiziyobisi.


  • Kukuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo.
  • Kukunyanzela umntwana ukuba akuphatha-phathe.
  • Ukubonisa umntwana imifanekiso yamanyala yokulalana kwabantu.
  • Ukuphatha-phatha umntwana apho angafuni kuphathwa khona.
  • Ukuphathwa gadalala.
  • Ukubetha okanye wenzakalise umntwana – okanye ukukhuphela umsindo emntwaneni.
  • Ukophulwa ngokwasemoyeni.Ukunyemba, nokoyikisa okanye ungxolise umntwana.
  • Ukungakhathalelwa.
  • Ukunganonotshelwa kakuhle komntwana, umzekelo: ukungacocwa, ukunganxityiswa okanye ukondliwa komntwana.


Abenzi bobubi badla ngokwaziwa ngumntwana. Kusenokwenzeka ukuba ngabazali, izihlobo, abamelwane okanye amalungu osapho. Isenokuba ngabantu abathembekileyo nangona bebefanele ukubakhusela. Kodwa ke oku akuthethi ukuba bonke abantu abathembekileyo bangabaxhaphaza abantwana. Abantwana bangamaxhoba, ngokungakumbi ngeempela-veki okanye ngexesha leholide xa behleli bodwa ekhaya. Abazali okanye abanonopheli kufuneka bahlale besazi ukuba baphi okanye bahleli nabani abantwana babo. Abazali okanye abanonopheli kufuneka bahlale besenza izinto eziyakubayinzuzo kwikamva lomntwana. Ukhuseleko lomntwana luqala ekhaya kusapho lwakhe.


Xelela umntu othile:

  • Ukuba kukho umntu okugrogrisayo, xelela umntu omthembileyo.
  • Musa ukuvumela ukuxhatshazwa kube yimfihlo phakathi kwakho nomntu okuxhaphazayo.
  • Ukuba kukho omntu osele ekuxhaphazile – musa ukumkhusela – khusela isiqu sakho – mxele.

Ukuba abakuthembi xelela omnye umntu. Yiya ekliniki uxelele umongikazi walapho, yaye kufuneka ethathe amanyathelo. Ungakuxela ukhuxhatshazwa emapoliseni okanye ucele utishala omthembayo ukuba akuncede ekuxeleni ukhuxhatshazwa. Futhi ungatsalela umxeba kwi – Childline ku le nombolo ingahlawulelwayo – 0800 05 55 55.

Yiba nomonde ekuxeleleni abantu oko kwenzekileyo kuwe kude kubekho umntu okukholelwayo aze akuncede.


Kufuneka uhlale usaziswa ngamalungelo akho njengomntwana.Unelungelo lokuthi HAYI kuye nawuphina umntu owenza okanye othetha izinto ezingalunganga (oko kuquka abazali bakho). Oku kuquka umntu ozama ukuphatha-phatha umzimba wakho okanye ozama ukuzicengela ngento ongayithandiyo. Funda ngezinto ongaziqondiyo ezifana nokulalana, i-AIDS, abantwana bazalwa njani, yintoni ukuxhatshazwa ngokwesondo nokuphathwa gadalala. Akumelanga ukuba woyike ukubuza imibuzo ngezi zinto. Ungababuza abazali bakho, ootishala okanye naye nawuphina umntu omdala omthembileyo okanye ungatsalela umnxeba i childline.

Umntwana ohlala esazi ngumntwana okhuseleke kakhulu.

  • Thanda isiqu sakho
  • Wuthande umzimba wakho, ngowakho ubomi bakho bonke.
  • Zihloniphe uhloniphe nabanye abantu.
  • Zingce ngobomi bakho – ubaluleke kakhulu.
  • Zithembe

Intombazana okanye inkwenkwe, isinhanha okanye isilambi, otyebileyo okanye obhityileyo, omde okanye omfutshane – hlala uzithembile. Musa ukukholisa iimfuno zabanye abantu. Gcina umgangatho wendlela yakho yokuphila.Mantombazana nani makhwenkwe, zikhuseleni yaye nikhuselane xa into niyibona ukuba ilungile. Ukuba uyaxhatshazwa, ayinguwe unobangela kodwa abaxhaphazi bayakusoloko bezamela ukuba isithyolo siwele kuwe.

Khumbula, ukukhusela abantwana kubundlobongela luxanduva lwethu sonke.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

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Ingane ngumuntu oneminyaka engaphansi kwe18 ubudala.

Umthetho omkhulu walapha eNingizimu Afrika, uMthetho-sisekelo, uqinisekisa ukuthi, bonke abantu, abaneminyaka engaphansi kwe18, banamalungelo ezingane. Ngakho-ke zonke izingane eNingizimu Afrika, kanye nezingane ezivela kwamanye amazwe, zinamalungelo.


  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuba yizingane.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokunakekelwa ngabazali bazo, umndeni nabahlinzeka ngokunakekela.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuthola ukudla okwanele ukuze zihlale ziphilile.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuthola ukunakekelwa okuphambili kwezempilo/kwezokwelashwa uma zigula.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuvikelwa ekulinyazweni, zikhuseliseke futhi zizizwe ziphephile.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokufunda.
  • Izingane ezikhubazekile zinelungelo lokunakekelwa ngokukhethekile.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokukhuluma futhi zizwakale.


  • Uhulumeni kanye namaphoyisa kufanele benze konke okusemandleni ukuvikela izingane kubantu, okumbandakanya nabazali bazo, abazilimazayo.
  • Uhulumeni kufanele alekelele ekuvikeleni izingane kulo lonke udlame lomzimba lokwengqondo, ukulimala noma ukuhlukunyezwa.
  • Izingane eziphambana nomthetho zinelungelo lokuphathwa ngendlela ekhethekile.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuvikelwa ezimweni zempi.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuvikelwa ekunganakelelweni, ukuhlukunyezwa kanye nokujeziswa okwehlisa isithunzi ngabazali bazo nabahlinzeka ngokunakekela.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokudlala futhi zingenzi umsebenzi wabantu abadala; zinelungelo lokuvikelwa ekusetshenzisweni zisencane – kanye nasekuphoqweni ukuthi zisebenze ukuthi zenzele abanye abantu imali.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuvikelwa kuzo zonke izinhlobo zokuxhashazwa nokuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi.
  • Izingane zinelungelo lokuvikelwa kulezo zinto ezilimazayo nezidakamizwa. Izingane kufanele zivikelwe ekusetshenzisweni ukwenza noma ekuhwebeni ngezidakamizwa.


  • Ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi
  • Ukuphoqa ingane ukuthi ikuthinte
  • Ukukhombisa ingane imifanekiso yocansi.
  • Ukuthinta ingane lapho ingafuni ukuthintwa khona nalapho kungafanele khona.
  • Ukuhlukumeza ingane ngokomzimba
  • Ukushaya noma ukulimaza ingane – noma ukudubela enganeni.
  • Ukuhlukumeza ingane ngokomphefumulo
  • Ukwehlisa isithunzi sengane, ukuyisabisa noma ukuthethisa ingane ngesihluku.
  • Ukunganakekeli ingane
  • Ukunganakekeli kahle ingane, ukwenza nje isibonelo: ukungayigezi, ukungayigqokisi noma ukungayiphi ukudla.


Abantu abahlukumeza izingane ziyabazi izingane. Bangaba ngabantu abasebenzisa kabi isikhundla noma ukwethenjwa kwabo yizingane futhi okufanele ngabe izingane bayazivikela. Kungenzeka kube ngabazali imbala, abangani, omakhelwane kanye namanye amalungu omndeni. Nokho, lokhu akusho ukuthi bonke abantu abethenjwa yizingane bayazihlukumeza. Izingane zisesimweni esibucayi ikakhulukazi ngezimpelasonto nangamaholide ngesikhathi zizodwa ekhaya. Abazali nalabo abazinakekelayo kufanele njalo bahlale bazi ukuthi izingane zabo zikuphi futhi zinobani. Izingane nabazinakekelayo kufanele njalo benze lokho okuzohlomulisa ingane. Ukuvikelwa kwengane kuqala ekhaya emndenini.


Tshela omunye umuntu:

  • Uma usaba, tshela umuntuomthembayo.
  • Uma kukhona umuntu vele osekuhlukumezile, ungamvikeli zivikele wena – mcebe.
  • Uma abantu bengakukholwa, tshela omunye umuntu.
  • Yiya emtholampilo utshele uMhlengikazi okufanele athathe izinyathelo.
  • Qhubeka njalo utshele abantu ngalokho okwenzekile kuze kube khona okukholwayo, othatha izinyathelo zokukuvikela.


Yazi ngamalungelo akho njengengane.

Unelungelo LOKWENQABA uma kukhona umuntu okwenza okuthile noma osho izinto obona ukuthi azilungile(ngisho nabazali bakho). Lokhu kumbandakanya umuntu ozama ukuthinta umzimba wakho noma okucela ukuthi wenze okuthile okungakuphathi kahle.

Funda ngezinto ongaziqondi kahle njengocansi, iNgculazi, ukuthi izingane zizalwa kanjani, ukuthi yini ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi, ngokomphefumulo nangokomzimba.

Ingane eqaphelayo yingane evikelekile kahle. Zithande Zigqaje ngomzimba wakho, ngowakho impilo yakho yonke. Zihloniphe uhloniphe nabanye Ihloniphe impilo yakho – ukhethekile.


Uyintombazane noma umfana, ucebile noma umpofu, ukhuluphele noma uzacile – ziphathe ngokuzithemba Yazi ukuthi ungahamba ugcinephi nomunye umuntu, uyazi futhi nemikhawulo abantu abanayo ngawe. Mantombazane nani bafana, vikelanani nimelane kulokho okulungile. Khumbulani, ukunqanda ubugebengu obubhekiswe ezinganeni ngumsebenzi wawo wonke umuntu.

Khumbulani, ukunqanda ubugebengu obubhekiswe ezinganeni ngumsebenzi wawo wonke umuntu.


SAPS Crime Stop
08 600 10111

SAPS Emergency number

0800 05 55 55

The tide has turned! Build a people’s contract for a safe and secure South Africa!

Category: Family Safety

Category: Family Safety

A child is a person under the age of 18 years

You have the right not to be treated or punished in a cruel and humiliating way.Do not keep secrets about abuse.  Report it to your caregiver, parents, teacher, family member or the police.

If you urgently need help call the SAPS
emergency number: 10111

If you want to report a crime call
Crime Stop: 08600 10111

You can also call Childline
for help: 0800 0555 55

Category: Family Safety

Can you say these important sentences in other languages?


Please help me


Help my asseblief


Ngicela ungisize


Ndicela uncedo



Where is the police station?


Waar is die polisie stasie?


Sikuphi isiteshi samaphoyisa


Siphi isikhululo samapolisa?



My name is …


My naam is …


Igama lami ngingu …


Igama lam ngu …



My telephone number is …


My telefoon nommer is …


Ucingo lwami ilolu/ileli …


Inombolo yam yomnxeba ngu/ithi …



I am lost


Ek het verdwaal





CALL 08 600 10111

Category: Family Safety

What is bullying?

Bullying is repeated aggressive behaviour that can be physical or verbal.

  • You are made to feel hurt, angry, afraid, helpless, hopeless, isolated, ashamed and even guilty that the bullying is somehow your fault. You may even feel suicidal.
  • Your physical health is likely to suffer and you are at a greater risk of developing mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety or low self-esteem.

Types of bullying
Physical bullying includes the following:

  • Hitting, kicking or pushing someone, or even threatening to do it
  • Stealing, hiding or ruining someone’s things
  • Hazing, harassing or humiliating someone
  • Making someone do things he or she does not want to do.

Verbal bullying includes the following:

  • Name-calling
  • Teasing, taunting
  • Refusing to talk to someone
  • Excluding someone from groups or activities
  • Spreading lies or rumours about someone
  • Insulting or otherwise verbally abusing someone.

You can also read about cyberbullying here.

If you are being bullied, remember –

  • not to blame yourself. It is not your fault. No matter what someone says or does, you should not be ashamed of who you are or what you feel.
  • to be proud of who you are. Despite what a bully says, there are many wonderful things about you. Keep those in mind instead of the things you hear from bullies.
  • to get help. Talk to a parent, teacher, counsellor or other trusted adult. Seeing a counsellor does not mean that there is something wrong with you.

Tips for dealing with a bully and overcoming bullying

There is no solution to bullying or best way to handle a bully. It may take a variety of different responses to find the strategy that works best for your situation. To defeat a bully, you need to retain your self-control and preserve your sense of self.

  • Walk away from the bully. Bullies want to know that they have control over your emotions, so do not react with anger or retaliate with physical force. If you walk away, ignore them or calmly and assertively tell them that you are not interested in what they have to say. In this way, you are demonstrating that they do not have control over you.
  • Report the bullying to a trusted adult. If you do not report threats and assaults, a bully will often become more and more aggressive. In many cases, adults can find ways to help with the problem without letting the bully know that it was you who reported them.
  • Repeat as necessary. In the same way as the bully, you may have to be relentless. Report each and every bullying incident until it stops.
  • Find support from those who do not bully. Having trusted people you can turn to for encouragement and support will boost your resilience when being bullied. Reach out to connect with family and real friends. There are plenty of people who will love and appreciate you for who you are.

Spot the warning signs that a child or teen is being bullied

If a child is being bullied, it may not be obvious to a parent or teacher. For example, most bullying occurs away from adults, when children are alone at school or on their way home from school. Bullies tend to be adept at hiding their behavior from adults and bullying victims will often cover up evidence, because of a sense of shame at being victimized. The following warning signs may indicate that your child is being bullied:

  • Your child appears worried, angry and moody.
  • Your child may experience nightmares more frequently.
  • Physical complaints increase and your child avoids explaining physical injuries.
  • Withdrawal from friends and activities that they used to enjoy.

Take steps to stop bullying

  • Talk to children about bullying. Merely talking about the problem can be a huge stress reliever for someone who is being bullied. Be supportive and listen to a child’s feelings without judgement, criticism or blame.
  • Find help for a child who is afraid of a bully. Make sure that other teachers, friends and counsellors know that the child is being bullied. No child should have to deal with bullying alone.
  • Report the incidents to the relevant authorities.
Category: Family Safety

Personal Safety

Safety tips for children

  • Know your full name(s), your parents’names, your address(es) and phone number(s).
  • Tell your parents about things that make you feel scared, uncomfortable or sad.
  • Know the difference between a good secret and a bad secret. A good secret is fun to keep, such as a surprise party. A bad secret feels bad to keep and makes you feel scared.
  • Strangers: Never tell strangers your name(s) or where you live.
  • Buddy system:  Use the buddy system and avoid walking or playing alone outside or in public places.
  • Scream:“No!” Run and tell. Screaming and running are better safety ideas than trying to hide. If a stranger approaches you, scream: “No!” Run to where there are safe adults and tell an adult what happened.
  • Safe distance: Keep a safe distance (approximately three arm lengths) from strangers and strangers’ cars, even if a stranger seems friendly. Run in the direction opposite to the direction in which the stranger’s car is travelling.
  • Fight back: It is okay to scream and fight. Do anything to get the stranger to let go. Screaming is the most important thing you can do, especially screaming: “No!” “Help!” or “Danger!” to get an adult’s attention.
  • Home safety: Keep all the doors and windows locked when you are at home alone. Go to a neighbour and call 10111 if a window is broken or if the door is open when you get home.
  • Doorbell safety: Answer the door by asking: “Who is it?” Never say that you are alone and never open the door when you are alone, unless it is someone your parents told you to expect and let him/her/them in.
  • Phone safety: Never say that you are alone when a stranger calls. You can say, “Mom/Dad cannot come to the phone now. Can I take a message?”

Parents should always take heed of the following

  • Children must know their full name(s), age(s), telephone number(s) and address(es).
  • Children must know how to contact you, the SAPS or another close relative in an emergency.
  • When children are alone at home, they should tell people who phone that you are there, but that you are busy and cannot come to the phone. The person who is phoning, can phone back later. Teach your child to end any telephone calls with strangers immediately and hang up the telephone if he/she continues to talk.
  • When children are at home alone, they should find out the identity of the person who comes to the door, without opening the door. If a stranger is at the door, teach your children to tell the stranger that you are busy and that he/she should go away and come back later. Teach your child not to engage in conversation with the visitor. If the child feels threatened, teach him/her to phone an emergency number. Emergency numbers could be your telephone number at work, that of the police or a trusted neighbour who will be at home.
  • If it is at all possible, children should play and walk with other children.
  • Children should always ask your permission before accepting gifts from strangers.
  • In order to avoid situations where strangers may approach him/her alone, such as an unsupervised play area, empty lots, abandoned buildings, bushy areas of parks or riverbeds, children should run home or to the nearest public place or a friend’s home if someone is following or frightening him/her/them.
  • Children must know that adults, especially strangers, rarely ask children for help in finding things or for directions. Explain to your child that men and women are strangers.
  • Children must know that if he/she/they become separated from you in a store or shopping mall, he/she/they must go to a store employee or cashier for help immediately.
  • You must know where your children are at all times. Know their friends and be clear with them about the places and homes they may visit.
  • Never leave children unattended in a vehicle, whether it is running or not.
  • Listen to your children. Pay attention if they tell you they do not want to be with someone or go somewhere.
  • Noticewhen anyone shows your child a great deal of attention or begins giving gifts. Ask your child about the person and find out why that person is behaving that way.
  • Teach your children thatthey have the right to refuse any unwelcome, uncomfortable or confusing touch or actions by others and get out of those situations as quickly as possible. If they cannot leave, children should be taught to kick, scream and resist by yelling loudly, “This person is not my father/mother/guardian” and then immediately tell you what happened.
  • Be sensitive to any changes in your children’s behaviour or attitude. Encourage open communication and learn how to be an active listener. If your children tellyou about problems, try to stay calm, be reassuring, and non-judgemental. Work with them to get help to resolve the problem.
  • Practise basic safety skills with your children. Make an outing to a mall or park an educational experience in which your children practise checking with you, going to the bathroom with a friend and finding adults who may be able to help if they need assistance. Do not let your children wear clothing or carry items that bear their names in public. It makes it too easy for a stranger to approach them.
  • Develop code words for anyone you trust to fetch your children and teach your children the words. Tell them not to go with anyone who does not know the code words.
Category: Family Safety

First aid at home

Every parent needs a well-stocked kit at home and on the go, says David Markenson, M.D. Kits for the house and car can be big enough to hold a wide range of supplies, but don’t overstuff them. Stroller kits can be pared down.

Breathing barrier (if a stranger needs to administer CPR; foldable, disposable shields are available at

Tweezers (to remove splinters or ticks)

1% hydrocortisone cream and calamine lotion (for bites or stings)

Alcohol wipes (to clean scissors and tweezers)

Oral antihistamine (for allergic reactions)

Non-latex gloves (to pull on clean hands when treating a wound)

Acetaminophen or ibuprofen (for pain and fever)

Thermometer (non-mercury, non-glass)

Triple-antibiotic ointment (to prevent infection)

Hand sanitizer (to clean hands in case water and soap aren’t available)

Blanket (to prevent heat loss after large burns and to treat for shock)

Bottled water (to rinse wounds if there’s no faucet nearby)

Instant cold compress (to control swelling)

Keep your expression and tone of voice as relaxed as you possibly can, and try these doctor-tested tips.

If Your Child Is 5 or Younger

Cover wounds with a cloth as you treat them. If you can, have another adult do the bandaging while you comfort your child.

Distract her with books, small toys, bubbles, or stickers.

Use age-appropriate words. If your child doesn’t know what a hospital is, say it’s a place where people help boo-boos feel better.

If Your Child Is Between 6 & 12

Involve him in first aid. Even letting him hold the ointment can help him feel more in control.

Keep him busy with movies or TV shows, portable electronic games, an iPod with calming music, or stories (true or imagined).

Preview it all. Being surprised by a pinch or a sting only creates more anxiety about what’s coming next.

Q: Do cuts heal faster under a bandage or when left to “breathe”?

A: While a cut is still open, a bandage can help prevent infection and scabs. But after a few days, a little air can speed healing. You can put your child to bed without a bandage, and if you can do it without disturbing him too much, sneak in a couple hours later to reapply a new one.

Q: Are antibiotic ointments really necessary?

A: Yes, medicines like Neosporin can help healing. But you don’t want to apply it unnecessarily — say, to a small scrape or a bug bite when the skin isn’t open. Some researchers believe antibiotic overuse has led to the rise of tough-to-treat staph infections like MRSA.

Q: Any tricks to getting my child to tolerate an ice pack?

A: Parents tend to make the pack too cold, often by placing ice in a thin plastic bag. But a compress doesn’t need to be frigid to bring down swelling; just wrap some ice in a dry washcloth. Younger kids might like the animal-shaped compresses you keep in the fridge or freezer.

Q: After an injury, when does a child need to get a tetanus shot?

A: Some wounds caused by a dirty, rusty, or dusty object put a child at risk for tetanus. If she’s gotten her immunizations on schedule, she’s probably fine. But to be safe, call the pediatrician to discuss her tetanus risk.

Act Fast: If the insect left a stinger, gently scrape the skin with your fingernail or a credit card to remove it without breaking it. (Using tweezers can squeeze out more venom.) Call 082 911 if your child has trouble breathing, is coughing, or develops a hoarse voice, hives, or swollen lips or tongue.

Follow-Up Care: For itching, hold a cold compress over the area for a minute, or apply calamine lotion or a 1% hydrocortisone cream or topical antihistamine (if the skin isn’t broken or scabbed). Contact your doc if you suspect a tick bite. He may want to test for Lyme and other tick-borne diseases.

Did You Know? Bites and stings are the third most common accident seen in the E.R. among kids 4 and under.

– Swallowed Poison Chart

If a child or adult consumes a poison, you need to know what to do.

May I suggest that you print several copies of this chart and keep them in various places, such as in your handbag, or in the car, as well as in your first aid kit. Tell your friends about the site so that they can print copies as well.

– | South African Preschools directory (Education) | Parents guide South Africa –

If a child or adult consumes a poison, you need to know what to do.

May I suggest that you print several copies of this chart and keep them in various places, such as in your handbag, or in the car, as well as in your first aid kit. Tell your friends about the site so that they can print copies as well.

Click the link below to view the poison chart
author: Sandy DuPlessis [1


Act Fast: When your child has severe pain, constant tearing, light sensitivity, or blurry vision after being poked or hit in the eye, hold a cool, wet cloth over the area and head to the E.R. He may have a scratch on the eye’s surface, which is treated with prescription drops or ointment and usually heals within 48 hours. You can contact St Johns eye care on 0011 938-7195 If a chemical has been splashed in his eye, hold the lid open and flush with lukewarm water and call Poison Control  0861 555 777 or 021 689 5227

Follow-Up Care: Monitor your child for pain and vision problems in the weeks that follow a poked eye. These could be a sign of traumatic iritis, an inflammation of the colored part of the eye, or a deeper injury.

Act Fast: Use soap and water to wash around the splinter. Clean a pair of tweezers with rubbing alcohol and slowly pull the splinter out. Wash the skin again. When a splinter is hard to remove, leave it for a day or so to see whether it comes out on its own. If your child steps on a piece of glass, and it’s not a single shard you can easily remove, gently wrap a clean cloth around the area and go to the E.R. Ask your doctor about an X-ray even if you think you’ve gotten the glass out; scans often find shards that can lead to infection.

Follow-Up Care: If the splinter isn’t out after a few days or is causing your child pain, turning red, or has pus, see your doctor to have it removed safely.

Act Fast: Have your child sit upright, but don’t tilt her head back. Loosen any tight clothing around her neck. Pinch the lower end of her nose close to the nostrils and have her lean forward while you apply pressure continuously for five to ten minutes. Don’t release and check the nose; it could prolong the bleeding.

Follow-Up Care: If the nosebleed is the result of a trauma, reduce swelling by holding an ice pack against the bridge of the nose after the bleeding slows down. If it persists after ten minutes or returns later, call your doctor or go to the E.R. to check for a break.

Act Fast: Immediately hold under cool running water or apply a cold, wet towel until the pain subsides. Cover any small blisters with a loose bandage or gauze and tape; call a doctor as soon as possible if burns are on the face, hands, or genitals, or if they’re larger than 6mm anywhere on the body. If the burn looks deep — the skin may be white or brown and dry — go to the E.R. For a burn covering a tenth of the body or more, don’t use cold compresses; call 112 on your cell and cover the child with a clean sheet or a blanket to prevent hypothermia until help arrives.

Follow-Up Care: Don’t pop any blisters yourself. If the skin breaks, apply an anti-biotic cream and cover the area with a bandage or gauze and tape until it’s healed. Watch for any redness, swelling, tenderness, or discharge — all signs of infection.

Did You Know? Scalds, from hot foods or liquids, are the most common burn injury in children ages 6 months to 2 years.

Heather Weston

Act Fast: If there’s bleeding, first press firmly over the site with a clean cloth until it stops, anywhere from three to 15 minutes. Clean under lukewarm running water and gently pat dry. When a wound is dirty or was caused by an animal scratch, rinse it with water and gently lather with soap. If the skin is broken, apply a thin layer of an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment (like Neosporin or Bacitracin), then cover with a bandage or gauze and adhesive tape. If you can’t control the bleeding after several attempts with direct pressure, call your pediatrician or 112 on your cell, or head to an E.R. If a large piece of skin has been removed, wrap it in a clean, moist cloth and place it in a bag over ice — a doctor may be able to reattach it. An animal bite that has caused a deep cut should be seen by a doctor.

Follow-Up Care: Dab on the anti-biotic ointment and apply a new bandage daily (or twice daily, if it’s a large or deep wound) until the cut heals, so your child can’t pick at it. If it appears to be forming or draining pus or becomes swollen, tender, or red, see a doctor right away to treat the infection. After the wound heals, slather on SPF 30 until it starts to fade, because newly healed skin can sunburn more easily, making any eventual scar more noticeable.

Health and wellness

Why Magnesium is the Most Powerful Relaxation Mineral Known to ManIt can’t be stressed enough how necessary Magnesium is for a healthy and functioning body. Absence of this important nutrient can result in serious illness and complications.

According to a study published in The Journal of Intensive Care Medicine a magnesium deficiency makes you twice as likely to die compared to other people. (1)

Increasing this vital mineral can actually help battle and even cure some diseases. Despite all of this, nearly half of all Americans are deficient in Magnesium completely unaware of it (2).

he Relaxation Mineral

Believe it or not, magnesium is known as the relaxation mineral.  Well-known in health circles for it’s ability to combat stress, magnesium is responsible for over 300 enzymes in your brain (3). Not only can the mineral reduce stress, it can also improve sleep by reducing the production of cortisol, the stress hormone.

It’s surprising that considering all of the benefits of Magnesium, it isn’t more discussed or promoted by doctors. In the medical field it’s not uncommon to see Magnesium used, especially on patients in critical condition (4).

Magnesium is a critical element in cardiovascular health, for this reason it is often used on people who have suffered a heart attack or arrhythmia. Magnesium and potassium also help get rid of water retention, making it a natural diuretic in higher doses, and is often used when preparing for a colonoscopy.

That being said, you don’t need to be hospitalized or in an extreme case of emergency to reap the benefits of magnesium. You simply need to start incorporating more magnesium into your daily diet.

Are You Deficient in Magnesium?

Magnesium has earned it’s name as the “ relaxation mineral ” and for good reasons. Achiness, irritability and cramps are all symptoms of magnesium deficiency (5).

Magnesium is involved in a wide variety of systems, including cardiovascular, neural, muscular, bone and hormone health. With it’s primary job being monitoring the flow of calcium to the cell, you really can’t have healthy cells without it (6).

Stress comes into play when the body undergoes rapid change due to anxiety. Each cell in the body responds differently to this change and needs the right kind of hormonal and chemical balance to handle it (7).

Unfortunately the foods high in magnesium, such as seaweed, nuts, greens, and beans, are not commonly eaten in an American diet.

If you think you may be suffering from magnesium deficiency, be aware of the following symptoms:

  • Behavioral disturbances
  • Irritability
  • Weakness
  • Increase intracellular calcium
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Calcium Deficiency
  • Potassium Deficiency
  • Irregular or rapid heartbeat
  • Growth retardation or “failure to thrive” (among children)
  • Tremors
  • Involuntary eye movements and vertigo
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Tics
  • Muscle Spasm
  • Muscle Cramps
  • Hyperactive reflexes
  • Seizures
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Anorexia or loss of appetite
  • Impaired memory and cognitive function
  • Lethargy

Magnesium deficiency has also been linked to inflammation, which is considered to be the root cause of many diseases.  One study found that “inflammatory indicators in the body such as CRP (C-reactive protein), TNF (tumor necrosis factor alpha), and IL6 (interleukin 6) were all reduced when magnesium intake was increased.” Inflammation that was found within the artery walls was also reduced with magnesium (8).

Here are some tips on how to stop draining your body of Magnesium (10).

  • Limit your intake of caffeine, salt, alcohol and sugar.
  • Take up relaxing practices such as meditation, journaling, and deep breathing to reduce stress.
  • Avoid eating junk food and increase your intake of whole foods.
  • Soak up in epsom salt baths.

Making these lifestyle changes isn’t going to be easy but it’s definitely worth it!

5 Cancer Symptoms Women Often Ignore

According to the CDC, an average of 69.8% of women over 50 have had a mammogram in the last two years (circa 2010), but cancer isn’t always caught in the screening tests and definitely won’t be found during a screening if you don’t have it done in the first place. Often when women suspect something, fear keeps them from talking to their doctor about it and that’s definitely the wrong way to go. Except in notable cases, if you think there’s something wrong, there probably is. Trust your instincts about your body, it could save your life.

Here are some symptoms, which are serious even if they don’t always mean cancer, people will often overlook or ignore that could be harmful in the long run:

1 • Chronic cough, chest pain, wheezing, or shortness of breath. Several types of cancer, including lung tumors and leukemia, can cause symptoms that are similar to a bad cough or bronchitis. Some patients say the pain will extend up to their shoulder and even down the arm.

2 • Breast changes. Most breast lumps aren’t cancer, but that doesn’t mean they shouldn’t be investigated by a doctor anyway. Other changes may include: nipples that suddenly are inverted, nipple discharge, skin dimpling or puckering, (often called orange-peel skin) and scaliness or redness of the nipple or skin of the breast. This goes for everyone, not only women suffer from breast cancer.

3 • Swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck, underarms, or groin. Difficulty swallowing. If you have swollen lymph nodes or difficulty swallowing solids and liquids that’s progressively getting worse, it may be a fungal infection or it can also be cancer of the lymph nodes or esophageal tract – either way, it requires a doctor’s intervention.

4 • Bloating, abdominal pain, change in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, and/or blood in stool or urine. Women are natural bloaters, but if it doesn’t go away in a week or two, it’s time to see your doctor – particularly if it’s combined with bleeding or unplanned weight loss. All of these may mean ovarian cancer, but can also mean colon, bladder, or kidney cancer.

5 • Skin changes. If a mole or two is changing shape/color/size, it’s time to see your doctor. Immediately.

6 • Heartburn. Stress, alcohol, and too much food (and all three!) can cause heartburn. Try changing your diet for a couple weeks and see if it goes away… If it doesn’t? You may have stomach, esophageal, or ovarian cancer.

7 • Weakness or fatigue. Many people are exhausted from leading hectic lives, but tiredness that simply doesn’t go away? That isn’t healthy, particularly if it’s combined with any of the other symptoms on this list.

8 • Mouth changes. If you smoke, be on the lookout for white spots in your mouth or on your lips as both are a sign of oral cancer.

9 • Heavy bleeding or bleeding between periods. Many people report this as the first indicator of uterine or endometrial cancer. Ask your doctor for a transvaginal ultrasound.

10 • Pain, particularly in the back. Everyone has aches and pains, which is why this is so often overlooked. Ongoing pain can signal brain, bone, liver, breast, and many other cancers. Check with your doctor if any unexplained pains have lasted over a month.

11 • Changes in the nails. Unexplained changes in toenails or fingernails can indicate many different kinds of cancer. Be on the lookout for color changes such as white or pale beds or a brown/black streak or dot under the nail. Clubbing, enlargement of the ends of the fingers with nails that curve over the tips, is a sign of lung cancer.

12 • Abdominal pain accompanied by depression. While this one is rare, it’s also overlooked. Unexplained belly pain with depression can mean pancreatic cancer. Should you be worried? Only if your family has a history of the disease or you are a heavy drinker, then you should get in to a doctor straight away. Otherwise, if the pain doesn’t go away in a couple weeks, it would be a good idea to see a doctor anyway.

13 • Frequent infections or fever. A high temperature that can’t be explained and just doesn’t go away can mean leukemia or another blood cancer, share your concerns with your doctor immediately.

14 • Discharge. It isn’t something people talk about, but smelly or foul vaginal discharge can be a symptom of cervical cancer. The discharge may occur between periods or after menopause and sometimes will have blood in it. It’s best not to self-treat discharge changes with over-the-counter medications and visit your doctor. At the very least, it could be an infection and most of those can’t be treated with over-the-counter stuff anyway.

15 • Weight loss without trying. Nearly everyone wishes their extra pounds would just fall off, but losing more than ten pounds without any changes in your eating or exercise habits can indicate a big problem. Most unintended weight loss isn’t cancer, it can be the thyroid, but it may also be stomach, lung, or pancreatic cancer. Better to err on the side of caution.

Disclaimer: All content on this website is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation. Use of this website and the information contained herein does not create a doctor-patient relationship. Always consult with your own doctor in connection with any questions or issues you may have regarding your own health or the health of others.

Many Europeans believe in the benefits of napping so much that they shut down in the afternoon to allow everyone to take a quick power nap, recharge, and come back to work.

Unfortunately, this isn’t the case in the U.S. where a mid-day nap is not only a luxury, but often times is perceived as downright laziness.

If you’re among those who enjoy the occasional midday snooze, you should continue the habit as studies have shown that it’s a normal and integral part of the circadian (sleep-wake cycle) rhythm.

Studies have shown that short naps can improve awareness and productivity. You don’t need much; just 15 to 20 minutes can make a world of difference.

According to a study from the University of Colorado Boulder discovered that children who didn’t take their afternoon nap didn’t display much joy and interest, had a higher level of anxiety, and lower problem solving skills compared to other children who napped regularly. The same goes for adults as well. Researchers with Berkeley found that adults who regularly take advantage of an afternoon nap have a better learning ability and improved memory function. Why is napping so essential? Because it gives your brain a reboot, where the short-term memory is cleared out and our brain becomes refreshed with new defragged space.

How long should you nap?

According to experts, 10 to 20 minutes is quite enough to refresh your mind and increase your energy and alertness. The sleep isn’t as deep as longer naps and you’re able to get right back at your day immediately after waking up. If you nap for 30 minutes you may deal with a 30-minute grogginess period because you wake up just as your body started entering a deeper stage of sleep. The same can be said if you sleep for an hour, but on the other hand, these 60-minute naps provide an excellent memory boost. The longest naps— lasting about 90 minutes—are recommended for those people who just don’t get enough sleep at night. Since it’s a complete sleep cycle, it can improve emotional memory and creativity.

There you have it – naps are good for you physical and mental well being so you should practice them as much as you can. However, be advised that you shouldn’t sacrifice nighttime sleeping for an afternoon nap, they should be an addition to a good night sleep.

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10 Straightforward Exercises to Give You Great Eyesight

Deliberately exercising your eyes is one of those simple things that very few people do, but which can help immeasurably to maintain great vision.

Here are ten such exercises which will take you no more than ten minutes to do. Give them a try — we can’t emphasise how useful they are!

1. Blink for two minutes. This exercise helps to regulate blood circulation inside your eyes.

2. Rotate your head in a circular motion while staring ahead. First from right to left, then up to down. This increases the blood circulation in your eyes.

3. Look to your right, then slowly move you gaze left. Then do the same thing in the opposite direction.

4. Close your eyes and relax. Darkness is believed to help strengthen the photoreceptor cells in your eyes, which in turn can help maintain clear vision.

5. Move your gaze in various different directions. Look right to left, up and then down; turn your eyes in circular motion; draw a figure eight.

6. Close your eyes tight for three to five seconds, then open them. Do this seven times. This helps to relax your eye muscles and increases blood circulation to your eyes.

7. Lightly push against your temples with your fingers. Maintain this pressure for around two seconds. Repeat four to five times. This improves the flow of intraocular fluid.

8. Keeping your eyes open, draw simple geometric figures with your gaze. Then move on to more complicated shapes.

9. Close your eyes and slowly move your eyeballs up and down. Repeat this five to ten times.

10. Strengthen your eyes’ near and far focusing.

  • Sit in a chair or stand in front of a blank wall. Place your thumb about 10 inches in front of your face and focus on it. You can also focus on an object that is five to 10 feet away for 10-15 seconds.
  • Then, focus on an object that is 10-20 feet in front of you without moving your head. Focus on the object for 10-15 seconds.
  • After 10-15 seconds, refocus on your thumb. Practice this five times.

Heart disease is a main cause of death in the whole world, about 25% of lethal outcomes happen for this reason. Nevertheless, 90% of CVD (cardiovascular disease) can be prevented with a help of a balanced nutrition, exercise and a lack of bad habits.


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a disease that combines coronary artery atherosclerosis, stenocardia and myocardial infarct. Amid the accumulation of cholesterol plaques on the coronary walls of arteries, the heart’s arteries become narrow and the flow of blood worsens. Eventually, plaques only grow, blocking the flows of blood. While the majority of drugs are not capable of dissolving them, the chances of heart attack become frightening.

A heart attack is especially insidious because it can happen unpredictably. Moreover, 20% of heart attacks are asymptomatic. Such “silent” heart attacks do damage person’s health condition. That’s why is it crucially important that you learn the symptoms that can warn you about a possible heart attack. Here are the 6 warnings of myocardial infarct.


1. Pressure in the chest

You should not ignore pressure or pain in the chest. It is a clear sign that you have a heart problem that needs an immediate care. Frequent pain in the chest is a sign that a heart attack can happen anytime. If a pain spreads to your arms, back, shoulders and neck — is it a reason to call an ambulance immediately!

2. Shortness of breath

A heart and lungs work in tandem, so problems with one organ can influence problems with another. Narrowing of arteries blocks the normal flow of blood. Amid this fact, your lungs get not enough blood and you literally start suffocating.

3. Idiopathic fatigue

If you wake up already tired and you feel the lack of strengths to do your usual daily work, it can be a signal of coming heart attack. Excessive tiredness indicates that your heart works harder to pump blood.

4. Symptoms of flu or cold

It may sound strange but the majority of patients, who survived a heart attack, claim that they felt the symptoms of flu or cold before facing a heart attack.

5. Cold sweats

Clammy and cold sweat is a well-known symptom of a heart attack. It means that your heart does not get enough oxygenated blood. Your brain starts suffering from the lack of oxygen and blood circulation failure so that your conscious is confusional and foggy and you break into a cold sweat on your forehead.

6. Mood swings

A sensation of a baseless fear that doesn’t leave you is a sign of oxygen deficit. If your mood jumps from calm and happy to anxious for no reason, it might be that your organism warns you about an impending heart attack.

Of course, a single symptom doesn’t mean that you will have a heart attack. But with their help, your organism makes you warning signals and asks for help. Remember, that all these symptoms are hints that you should take into account and look for a reason of a disease instead of taking painkillers to get rid of the pain. Listen to your body and be healthy.



A meeting of the national Aarto task team will take place in Bloemfontein before the end of February in preparation for the planned country-wide roll-out of the demerit points system.

The demerit points system was introduced in a pilot program across Gauteng in 2008, in order to penalise drivers and operators who are habitual offenders.

However, the system also rewards law-abiding road users, as it reduces 1 point every 3 months down to zero demerit points if no contraventions occur.

Based on the current system (as provided for on the official Aarto website), the following will apply, country wide, following the planned roll-out.

How can you receive a demerit?

Every person starts with 0 points and the maximum permissible number of points a driver can earn is 12. A person is allowed to drive until he/she has 12 points. Every point exceeding 12 points results in a three-month suspension of the licence.

A licence is cancelled when it has been suspended for the third time. The demerit points in respect of vehicle operators and drivers are recorded separately even if they arise out of the same incident.

When will you receive a demerit?

You will receive a demerit in the following instances:

  • When penalties and fees are paid.
  • When you apply to pay in instalments.
  • When you are convicted in court.
  • When an enforcement order is issued.

Reducing Demerits

The total number of points will be reduced by one point for every three months during which no demerit points were incurred by that person, except for when the court finds that the court process had been deliberately delayed by that person to obtain a reduction in points.

Losing your licence



If a person exceeds a total of twelve demerit points, that person will be disqualified from driving or operating a motor vehicle. The disqualification period equals in months the number of points by which the total of twelve is exceeded, multiplied by three.

A person who is so disqualified:

  • Must immediately hand in any driving licence or professional driving permit to the issuing authority for retention by such authority during the disqualification period or must remove the prescribed operator card from the vehicle in applicable cases; and
  • May not apply for a driving licence, professional driving permit or operator card during the disqualification period.

Any person who drives or operates a motor vehicle during his or her disqualification period is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine or imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year or to both a fine and such imprisonment.

Infringement Fine amount Demerit points
Licences and miscellaneous
Driving an unregistered vehicle R500 1
Driving an unlicensed vehicle R500 1
Driving a vehicle with licence plate not visible R500 1
Driving without a driving licence R1,250 4
Driving without a seat belt R250 0
Driving under influence of intoxicating substance Determined by court 6
Driving while holding and using a cellphone R500 1
Failing to stop
Skipping a stop sign (light vehicles) R500 1
Skipping a stop sign (buses, trucks) R750 2
Skipping a red light (light vehicles) R500 1
Skipping a red light (buses, trucks) R750 2
Failing to yield to a pedestrian R500 1
Overtaking and overloading
Overtaking across a barrier line (light vehicles) R500 1
Overtaking across a barrier line (buses, trucks) R750 2
Overloading a vehicle with max 56,000kg combination mass by 12-13.99% R1,500 5
81-85km/h in a 60km/h zone R750 2
100km/h+ in a 60km/h zone Determined by court 6
106-110km/h in an 80km/h zone R1,000 3
120km/h+ in an 80km/h zone Determined by court 6
121-125km/h in a 100km/h zone R750 2
131-135km/h in a 100km/h zone R1,250 4
140km/h+ in a 100km/h zone Determined by court 6
131-135km/h in a 120km/h zone R250 0
141-145km/h in a 120km/h zone R750 2
151-155km/h in a 120km/h zone R1,250 4
160km/h+ in a 120km/h zone Determined by court 6

Why was it delayed so long?

The Demerit System was signed into law in September 1998 as part of the Administrative Adjudication of Road Traffic Offences (AARTO) according to Arrive Alive. This system, based on similar systems in Australia, and the United Kingdom, has been adapted to meet local needs.

The proposed system has been delayed for several years pending, amongst other reasons, a feasibility study and an assessment of technological requirements, law enforcement criteria and an analysis of human resources needed to ensure the successful implementation of the system.


Democratic Alliance DA

Speaking to MoneyWeb and other media this past week, Tshwane mayor Solly Msimanga has indicated that the DA-led municipalities of Tshwane and Johannesburg will officially withdraw from the pilot program.

Msimanga cited a failure to implement the system effectively and other financial concerns as reasons for the planned withdrawal.

The two municipalities will have little choice but to follow the rest of the country should the planned country-wide roll-out go ahead – however this could be the first indication of stiff resistance to the new system from opposition parties.

Category: Motoring

The Minister of Transport has continued her campaign against irresponsible driving and deaths on SA roads. This time by announcing the new driving regulations in South Africa. The new regulations are set for 11 May 2017.

New Driving Regulations In South Africa

  • Drivers will have to undergo a practical re-evaluation when renewing a licence.
  • A complete review and revamp of the current K53 test.
  • Speed limits to be reduced from 60km/h to 40km/h in urban areas, from 100km/h to 80km/h in rural areas, and from 120km/h to 100km/h on freeways running through a residential area
  • Goods vehicles above 9000kg GVM to be banned from public roads during peak traveling times.
  • Under Regulation 250, no school child may be transported for reward in the goods compartment of a vehicle. Other persons may also not be transported in the goods compartment for reward. Unless it is done in terms of the NLTA. Incorrect, see below

JPSA Accuse DoT Of “Spreading Misinformation”

Howard Dembrobsky of the Justice Project South Africa (JPSA) has said the Department of Transport has confused the public. According to Dembrobsky, the JPSA has simply been spreading misinformation.

“For some reason, which is not immediately apparent to us, the Department of Transport appears to have chosen to irresponsibly conflate actual promulgated amendments with draft amendments. This merely has the effect of spreading misinformation and confusing the public.”

Dembovsky Provided Corrections For The Statement Made By The Department Of Transport

  • Instead of bolstering the prohibition of persons on the back of bakkies and other goods vehicles for reward, this insertion has actually “legalised” the transportation of any and all other persons in the goods compartment of a motor vehicle for reward. Provided that the transport operator applies to and pays the Department of Transport for a permit to do so.
  • The amendments to Regulation 250 come into effect on 11 May 2017 and NOT “1 May 2017”, as has been widely reported.
  • The amendment of Regulation 250 imposes no prohibition whatsoever on the conveyance of any person (school children not excluded) in the goods compartment of a motor vehicle, where no fee is charged.
  • There is no prescript regarding the maximum number of persons who may be conveyed in the goods compartment of a motor vehicle contained in this amendment.
  • Insofar as the vehicle class speed limit of 100km/h for goods vehicles with a GVM/GCM of more than 3500kg, but less than 9000kg goes, the insertion of subparagraphs (aa) and (bb) into Regulation 293(iv), which gave effect to this specific vehicle class speed limit came into immediate effect on 11 November 2016.
Category: Motoring

Carol Schoeman

Waarskuwing Aan Alle Motoriste!!!
Mense, as julle in die aand ry en skielik n papwiel kry, ry maar aan tot by die naaste plek van veiligheid… dit is n nuwe ‘trick’ wat die boewe gebruik om motors tot stilstand te bring en jou so te wil beroof. ‘Share’ asseblief die brokkie inligting dit kan dalk jou en ‘n ander persoon se lewe red!!!

Warning to all motoriste!!!
People, if you in the evening and get a flat tyre, drive to the nearest place of safety… it’s a new ‘ trick ‘ that the thieves use to stop cars  and rob you . Please share the feed information this may save you and another person’s life!!!

Category: Motoring


South Africans can travel to these countries without a visa in 2017

South African passport holders can travel to quite a lot of countries without a visa. The visa application process can sometimes be very tedious and quite expensive, so choosing a visa-free country for your next holiday will definitely put some extra travel money in your pocket. Even though we “lost” New Zealand in 2016, we “gained” Russia from 1 April 2017.

SEE: Russia now visa free for South African citizens

Below is the full list of countries that South African passport holders can visit in 2017 without a visa or with a visa-on-arrival.

Table data sourced from: Passport Index

Visa-free Countries

Antigua and Barbuda










Costa Rica


Dominican Republic


El Salvador









Hong Kong
















Palestinian Territories






Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Lucia


South Korea

St. Vincent and the Grenadines




Trinidad and Tobago







Visa on arrival Countries




Cape Verde












Marshall Islands













Electronic Travel Authority (ETA) entry




Category: Travel